PACO 506 Discussion Boards

Contents

Discussion Board 1. 1

What did my educational experience look like in a country where the head of state is also the head of the church?. 2

Higher education experience that solidified this worldview.. 3

Religious experiences that fostered the belief of integration. 3

Discussion Board 2. 3

Secular Combatants and Christian Combatants. 5

Discussion Board 3. 5

Discussion Board 4. 6

A note from Dr. Holland. 7

Discussion Board 5. 8

References. 9

Discussion Board 6. 9

What are some cautions or possible negative impacts regarding the use of prayer in counseling?. 9

How do you decide when to confront sin in counseling and what form of confrontation to use?. 11

 

 

Discussion Board 1

  • Have your own education and experience stressed Athens (secular knowledge) or Jerusalem (theological or spiritual training)?
  • Do you see the Academy (human philosophy and knowledge) and the Church (Christian theology and spirituality) as fundamentally opposed to each other?
  • What factors in your personal religious background have led you to this view? When you reply to your classmate, be sure to include in your heading keywords to which you are responding.

Response:

The discipline of psychology includes altruism, compassion, and caring for others. When you study the original meaning of the term “psychology,” what do you discover? When we dissect the word, psyche in the original Greek ψυχή (psuchē) form means “soul” and -λογία (-logia) “study of.” Thus, the original meaning of psychology is “the study of the soul.” Who are the best to help people “study the soul” but people of faith! ~Prof Holland

Early educational experiences that fostered this worldview

The educational experience of my youth stressed both Athens and Jerusalem.  The writer was educated in Jamaica, WI and the United Kingdom where there is no separation of Church and state. The educational process did not compartmentalize Athens and Jerusalem (Entwistle, 2010, Location 56).  The writer does not believe that the Academy and the Church are fundamentally opposed to each other.  Blames argued that neither the Academy nor the church had absolute clarity on all matters (as cited by Entwistle, 2010, p.9).

When one wants to discover the diversity of “beliefs” that individuals espouse as absolute truth, and how those beliefs impacts one’s worldview, and psyche, just begin a discussion of the gift of tongue, and you will discover that the “Church” has multiple variations on a theme on that one topic alone. Just because we are Christian we assume that the word “Church” applies to Christians, actually it does not.  There are numerous belief systems that begin the title of their organization with the word church, and it has nothing to do with Christ.  For instance, the “Church of Satan.” We live in an age where the word “Church” can no longer be considered synonymous with the “Bible.”   They are not the same thing.  One is a religious organization, and the other is the very heart of God in written form

 

All knowledge comes to the source of all knowledge, and that is God. ” We must be careful, however, not to reinterpret Scripture based on the current whim of scientific or psychological opinion. When biblical and scientific interpretations are at odds, one must carefully review the basis upon which those interpretations are made. More will be said of this in later chapters of this book” (Entwistle, 2010, p. 153).  That statement is my position of what a Church presents as knowledge and what the Bible presents as knowledge.  I chose to state the Bible rather the Church because there are too many contentions within religious organizations.  There are no contentions with the word of God that can stand up to scrutiny.  The post was meant to insult any specific church, but to heighten the fact that man is fallible, and so are our words.

What did my educational experience look like in a country where the head of state is also the head of the church?

We started each day with morning Vespers, Bible reading, singing, and prayer. The works of C.S. Lewis were part of the educational process. Church history was taught as part of our history.  We had the right to pray over our meals, as do the children in American Public Schools. The Bible was an integral part of our educational process. That is available today in American public schools.  The Bible as Literature is a highly spirited class.  The discussions are interesting to especially when content and not the genre is being discussed.  England has changed since I was there and in attendance in school.  It now has a huge Muslim population, and there is a hue and cry to cease religious education, the reading of the Bible, and all thing “religious” in the schools.  So, far the population does not agree with that movement.  Memorization of the Bible started in school, not in church.  We were not a Church of England family.  I was baptized Catholic as a child. My Aunt was an Evangelist in a Pentecostal church.  I married into a Pentecostal church. But became a member of the – then Worldwide Church of God, It has since changed its name to Grace Communion International.  I am now a member of a Baptist church in South Carolina.  My children were both brought up in the Worldwide Church of God.  That church believed that the level of education that it provided for the students at the college should also be shared with the congregation.

Higher education experience that solidified this worldview

Due to the writer’s belief that all knowledge comes from God which clashed with the atheistic stance of her first psychology professor, she steered away from professors who categorically stated, “There is no God I am the only God there is.”  Her class assignments were arguments for the integration of both the science of psychology and the Supremacy of God’s Word. The Christian education received at Liberty University, during the Ed. S., and so far in this course, confirmed the writer’s belief that non-manipulative integration of the Academy and the Church is possible ( Entwistle, 2010, p.147).

Religious experiences that fostered the belief of integration.

The writer’s fifty-eight years of walking with The Lord and reliance on the Word of God as her instruction book for interpersonal relationships, and educational background at the higher education level, proffered the opportunity to integrate the two worldviews. The Academy construct provided the tool-set needed to meet the needs of emotionally disabled students through scientific research and methodology while utilizing the Holy Spirit and the Word of God as the force that empowered her mission of compassionately serving emotionally disabled students.

 

References

Christian denominations: Beliefs and theology. (2015). Retrieved from http://www.religionfacts.com/compare/denominations-beliefs

Entwistle, D. N. (2010). Integrative approaches to psychology and Christianity: An introduction to worldview issues, philosophical foundations, and models of integration (2nd ed.)Eugene, OR. Wipf & Stock Publishers, Inc. Kindle.

Moser, P. K. (2010). The evidence for God: Religious knowledge reexamined. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

35 largest Christian denominations in the United States. (2015). Retrieved from http://undergod.procon.org/view.background-resource.php?resourceID=87

Discussion Board 2

Psychology is just sinful human beings sinfully thinking about sinful human beings. Clarify your rationale for agreeing or disagreeing with this statement.

When one looks at this statement in its entirety it leads an individual to immediately presuppose that the statement is correct.  However, within the scope of all truth and all knowledge coming from the source of all truth and knowledge, God, the statement is in err and cannot be applied in a generalized manner to the subject, or practice,  of psychology (“Week 2: 1 Worldview Questions and Answers [PowerPoint Slides],” 2015, Slide 7).  According to Gaebelein (1968), Christ is truth . . . all knowledge is embodied in the truth of God’s word and who He is . . .and rests upon that Christian worldview (p. 19).

After the fall humanity was thinking and reasoning sinfully. ” Wherefore, as by one man sin entered into the world, and death by sin; and so death passed upon all men, for that all have sinned” (Romans 15:12 KVJ). Paul iterates that all have sinned and fall short of the glory of God (Romans 3:23 NIV).  When an individual accepts Jesus Christ as his Lord and Savior that state of sinfulness is no longer applied to them. “But ye are a chosen generation, a royal priesthood, an holy nation, a peculiar people; that ye should shew forth the praises of him who hath called you out of darkness into his marvelous light” (I Peter 2:9 KVJ).

A psychologist who integrates The Academy with Jerusalem cannot be considered an individual who is, “… just [a]sinful human being. . . . sinfully thinking about sinful human beings” (Entwistle, 2010, p. 12).  They are using their human abilities given to them by God, to better the lives of people who may be sinful or not-depending on their relationship with the Lord (“Week 2: 1 Worldview Questions and Answers [PowerPoint Slides],” 2015, Slide 7).  This statement can only be answered based on the individuals viewpoint of psychology and how it used within their worldview.  Hawkins (2015) declared that God is already at work in the heart of an individual who approached a psychologist for the resolution of their problem (Kollar. 2011 as cited by Hawkins, 2015, Phase 1). When the true integration of psychology, theology and spirituality occurs this statement becomes null and void (Moitinho, 2015).

References

Entwistle, D. N. (2010). Integrative approaches to psychology and Christianity: An introduction to worldview issues, philosophical foundations, and models of integration (2nd ed.)Eugene, OR. Wipf & Stock Publishers, Inc. Kindle.

Gaebelein, F. E. (1968). The pattern of God’s truth: Problems of integration in Christian education. Colorado Springs, CO: Oxford University Press.

Hawkins, R. (2015). Week 5: Finding additional information that helps for session one phase one [html]. Lecture presented at Introduction to pastoral counseling, Liberty University. Retrieved from Blackboard:https://learn.liberty.edu

Moitinho, E. (2015). Week 1: 3 Philosophical underpinnings of integrative counseling [Video file]. Lecture, Liberty University Integration of Psychology and Theology. Retrieved from Blackboard.Liberty.edu

Secular Combatants and Christian Combatants.

In chapter nine of Entwistle (2010) book, he describes Secular Combatants and Christian Combatants. Entwistle challenges us with “those with whom we disagree often have things to teach us” and encourages us to “ask ourselves what is to be learned and appreciated from” (p. 178) those who disagree with us. One thing I learn from combatants is their desire to maintain a level of “purity” in their worldview. Can anyone think of any other things we can learn from a combatant’s perspective?~Prof Holland

My response:

Combatants are determined to maintain, what they believe is the sanctity, of the Word of God and their relationship with him.  Their zealousness towards that end tells this writer that her position about the sanctity of her relationship with her creator should be just as intense. We live in an age where acceptance is the buzz word, and political correctness fuels conversations and many times leads to a waffling of a person’s convictions in an effort not to rock the boat so to speak.

 

Discussion Board 3

How can/should I counsel suffering people? Is the point of counseling to remove all suffering? Why or why not?

As I read this quote, I thought about David.  If ever a person depicted brokenness in God’s word it is David.  The man after God’s own heart who committed adultery murdered Uriah, and all of his soldiers, yet he wrote Psalm 40. This psalm describes David’s brokenness and the absolute joy, and unabashed release he experienced when that brokenness took him to a place where joy and worship through song completed his healing.

I waited patiently for the Lord; he turned to me and heard my cry.

He lifted me out of the slimy pit, out of the mud and mire;

he set my feet on a rock  and gave me a firm place to stand.

He put a new song in my mouth, a hymn of praise to our God.

Many will see and fear the Lord and put their trust in him (Psalm 40:1-3 NIV).

 

Counseling a broken person can bring about not just emotional, but spiritual healing.  When a Christian experiences that type of healing, through counseling, it releases the power of the Holy Spirit within them.  They go to their “Maker” with a different perspective on life.  They also experience a closeness that they did not have before.  McMinn (2011) declared, “In our sickness and pain, we grope for answers, for better understanding, for meaningful relationships. Our sickness leads us to God. God can restore and use broken vessels for divine purposes” (Kindle Loc. 482-483).

Peter is another example of brokenness.  He denied the Lord three times. But when the Holy Spirt came and healed that broken spirit within him that made him says, “I’m going fishing”, he stopped fishing for things that swim in the ocean. He reaped the largest “haul” as fishermen would say when he gave that powerful sermon in the book of acts.  His sermon demonstrated that his brokenness resulted in a closeness with his Savior that he did not have when he denied him or when he almost gave up and went fishing. The inner peace and joy that a counselor experiences when a care seeker arrives at that point in their walk is indescribable. So is the restoration that the care seeker experiences when the healing begins and is completed.

When we listen attentively to someone who is suffering that person is validated.  Petersen (2007), proposed that feelings heard and understood leads the speaker to believe that they have connected with the listener; he continues by iterating that knowing that others care enough about us to listen to us gives us value, and they take us seriously (p. 19).  Within the counseling relationship for trust to be established the care seeker must experience the emotions mentioned above or counseling will be ineffective.

References

Kollar, C. A. (2011). Solution-focused pastoral counseling: An effective short-term approach for getting people back on track. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Zondervan.

McMinn, M. R. (2011). Psychology, theology, and spirituality in Christian Counseling (Revised ed.). Carol Stream, Illinois: Tyndale House Publishers, Inc.

Petersen, J. (2007). Why don’t we listen better? Communicating & connecting in relationships. Tigard, Washington.

 

 

Discussion Board 4

How would you describe a “healthy sense of self”?

From the standpoint of being a counselor, the counselor should be aware of their professional limitations (Kollar, 2011). A counselor must also know their areas of spiritual weakness. They should be aware that their personal and or emotional challenges will impede the counseling process for some care seeker and be willing to refer them to someone else.  That is having a healthy sense of self.

Looking at selfhood as a construct; it is knowing who you are as an individual; it is the embodiment of having a real sense of self (“Week 4: 1 Multi-tasking in Christian Counseling [PowerPoint],” 2015, Slide: Professionalism in spiritually sensitive counseling).  It is not sinful to be aware of the gifts of understanding, creating, compassion, empathy, patience, discernment, and who you are in Christ. This enables a counselor to counsel in a Christ-like manner  (“Week 4: 1 Multi-tasking in Christian Counseling [PowerPoint],” 2015, Slide: Professionalism in spiritually sensitive counseling). According to McMinn (2011), a healthy sense of self or selfhood gives meaning to the healthy relationships we have with God and others (Kindle Loc 763).

When an individual has a negative sense of self it impacts their relational style with God, and others.  They pray but for the wrong reason. They enter relationships with others, but for the wrong reasons.  Always seeking fulfillment but never achieving that golden egg that the goose laid because they do not know who they are as an individual.  The quandary occurs when, as Christians, we perceive that it is evil and or sinful to acknowledge who we are in Christ, but that is not so within the theoretical framework of psychology.

McMinn proposed, ” When clinicians and personality theorists speak of self, they do not refer to reckless independence [ a person who behaves without regard for the emotional or physical safety of others] but to a capacity to distinguish one’s own identity from others in the environment (Kindle Loc.905-907).  As a Christian trained in how to work with students with emotional disabilities, I do not see the difference between the theoretical and or theological concepts. Paul, speaks to the parts of the body of Christ and the very fact that each member of the body has a specific role to play (I Corinthians 12 NIV).  To conclude, McMinn declared, “Those who have an accurate understanding and acceptance of themselves are freed to experience greater emotional or spiritual health (Kindle Loc 932-933). The response to this prompt has been multi-faceted because it is a complexed construct.  Christians have one concept of what this means and so do theorists.

References

Kollar, C. A. (2011). Solution-focused pastoral counseling: An effective short-term approach for getting people back on track. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Zondervan.

McMinn, M. R. (2011). Psychology, theology, and spirituality in Christian Counseling (Revised ed.). Carol Stream, Illinois: Tyndale House Publishers, Inc.

 

Week 4: 1 Multi-tasking in Christian counseling [PowerPoint]. (2015). Lecture, Liberty University Integration of Psychology and Theology. Retrieved from Blackboard.Liberty.edu

A note from Dr. Holland

It is important to have an understanding that developing a healthy sense of self is part of spiritual formation. Ortberg (2010) explains that “spiritual formation is the process by which your inner self and character are shaped” (p. 29).  He goes on to state that “We flourish when our spirits are rooted in and shaped by the Spirit of God – and God wants to do that in a way that uniquely fits us” (Ortberg, 2010, p. 29). So, to be shaped by God we need to read His Word and listen to His Holy Spirit, which is basic to our faith. ~Prof Holland

Reference

Ortberg, J. (2010). The me I want to be: Becoming God’s best version of you. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan.

Discussion Board 5

What are the most important therapeutic uses of Scripture in counseling?

It is important for the counselor to know why they are attempting to use scripture in a therapeutic setting. Is it to benefit for them or the care seeker?  That being said the lecture and the text point us to some therapeutic uses for Scripture in counseling.

The lecture indicated that the most important therapeutic uses of scripture are during the following counseling scenarios: The care seeker is:

experiencing feelings of guilt

demonstrating anxiety

suffering from trauma, stress, or depression.

experiencing interpersonal conflicts with family members or even co-workers.

grieving  (methodology – the empty chair)

having financial difficulties (“Week 5: 1 The Bible in Christian Counseling[PowerPoint Slides],” 2015)

 

According to McMinn (2011), authors of the topic on using scripture for therapeutic purposes have suggested using Bible passages in need of small group counseling to facilitate

codependency concerns

in marital counseling to help couples recover from sexual affairs,

in individual child therapy

to confront irrational beliefs in RET, and

using Scripture memory and meditation as homework in cognitive therapy (Kindle loc.1898).

 

McMinn (2011) cites Eric Johnson’s eight arguments for the use of Scripture in counseling.

First, the Bible plays an experiential role in our lives, providing a rich resource for wisdom and personal maturity.

Second, Scripture plays a foundational role, providing a common starting point for understanding our basic assumptions and beliefs.

Third, it plays a contextual role that allows us to understand human nature, meaning, and purpose in life.

Fourth, Scripture plays an axiological role, giving us standards for what should be.

Fifth, the Bible plays an anthropological role, providing us an awareness of the historical narrative of human sin and divine redemption.

Sixth, it plays a canonical role, providing an unchanging standard of truth.

Seventh, Scripture plays a dialogical role, providing rich resources for discussion and comparison between psychological knowledge and special revelation.

Eighth, the Bible plays a creative role, allowing us to consider and explore concepts and ideas that might not be considered from a purely psychological worldview. These eight roles that Johnson outlines suggest that Christian counselors have only begun to explore the potential of integrating the Bible and psychology.  (Johnson as Cited by McMinn, 2011, Kindle Loc. 1938).

 

Whereas these arguments validate the use of scripture and its rightful place in Christian counseling and the psychology of science they are not presented as therapeutic.

Finally, scriptures can be used as a part of spiritual formation; although we can use scripture in counseling sessions we should be cautious about how it is used (“Week 5: 2 Using the Bible for Spiritual Formation [PowerPoint Slides],” 2015) .

“Finally, brothers and sisters, whatever is true, whatever is noble, whatever is right, whatever is pure, whatever is lovely, whatever is admirable—if anything is excellent or praiseworthy—think about such things (Philippians 4:8 NIV).

 

References

McMinn, M. R. (2011). Psychology, theology, and spirituality in Christian Counseling (Revised ed.). Carol Stream, Illinois: Tyndale House Publishers, Inc.

 

Week 5: The Bible in Christian counseling[PowerPoint slides]. (2015). Lecture 1, Liberty University Integration of Psychology and Theology. Retrieved from Blackboard.Liberty.edu

Week 5: Using the Bible for spiritual formation [PowerPoint slides]. (2015). Lecture 2, Liberty University Integration of Psychology and Theology. Retrieved from Blackboard.Liberty.edu

Discussion Board 6

What are some cautions or possible negative impacts regarding the use of prayer in counseling?

 

First interceding for the needs of a care seeker could lead them to assume that prayer for their need is the counselor’s responsibility; thus negating him or her using this spiritual discipline to transform their lives and bring a resolution to their story (McMinn, 2011). Second, if the theological foundation of the client is not firm the use of contemplative prayer as a form of meditation and worship risks straying into the formation heresy (McMinn, 2011). Third, the use of prayer with a care seeker who is self-conscious about prayer may result in an ethical concern for the area of developing a healthy sense of self (“Week 6: Prayer for Psychological and Spiritual Health: Cautions [PowerPoint Slides],” 2015, Lecture 2). Fourth, within the parameters of developing a healthy sense of need, the inappropriate timing of the inclusion of prayer during counseling can deteriorate into the care seeker hoping for magical results (“Week 6: Prayer for Psychological and Spiritual Health: Cautions [PowerPoint Slides],” 2015, Lecture 2). Continuing with that thought, a counselor may inappropriately use prayer to motivate the care seeker to feel better rather than understanding that prayer connects them with God (“Week 6: Prayer for Psychological and Spiritual Health: Cautions [PowerPoint Slides],” 2015, Lecture 2). Fifth, regarding the importance of a healthy healing relationship, prayer may result in dependency on the counselor and a potential breach of ethical boundaries if the focus strays from God to the counselor (“Week 6: Prayer for Psychological and Spiritual Health: Cautions [PowerPoint Slides],” 2015, Lecture 2).

McMinn (2011) also enumerates some additional risks when using prayer.  (1) Praying for the social effect that Jesus condemns. (2) Praying ritualistically which makes the act of prayer meaninglessness. (3) Praying as a defense mechanism that could lead the care seeker to develop an avoidance of the presenting personal issues and (4) in counseling prayer can placate the client and relieve them of their accountability for their sin and or actions before God (McMinn, 2011). McMinn also iterates the challenges that counselors will face while using prayer as a therapeutic tool in counseling.

Prayer and an unbeliever: This quote from Ortberg (2009) is appropriate here “Right now you cannot run a marathon [Prayer is a marathon]. More to the point, you cannot run a marathon even if you try really, really hard [That is what a non-believer would be doing when forced to pray to a God in whom they do not believe.] (p. 45). Using prayer in a counseling session with a non-believer is like asking them to run a marathon. They must first know that he exists and that he cares otherwise prayer is just a religious ritual with no meaning for them at all (Moitinho, 2015). According to McMinn (1996) always try to avoid situations that could harm the care seeker. McMinn declared that a counselor without training in prayer therapy could cause more harm than good. It was interesting to note that McMinn (2011) stated that prayer is not a technique (p.109)

Prayer is the power tool of Christians, it is the divine resource that creates change from the inside or the outside, but in counseling we must be careful when praying during sessions with the clients (McMinn, 2011).

References

 

McMinn, M. R. (2011). Psychology, theology, and spirituality in Christian Counseling (Revised ed.). Carol Stream, Illinois: Tyndale House Publishers, Inc. Google Books.

Moitinho, E. (2015). Week 6: 3 Prayer and the Christian counselor [Video file]. Lecture, Liberty University Integration of Psychology and Theology. Retrieved from Blackboard.Liberty.edu

Ortberg, J. (2010). The me I want to be: Becoming God’s best version of you. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan. Google Books.

Week 6: Prayer for psychological and spiritual health [PowerPoint slides] (2015). Lecture 2, Liberty University Integration of Psychology and Theology. Retrieved from Blackboard.Liberty.edu

 

How do you decide when to confront sin in counseling and what form of confrontation to use?

 

McMinn (2011) utilized Millard Erickson’s declaration about confronting sin, “sin is any lack of conformity, active or passive, to the moral will of God [an act of willful disobedience]. . . . it is an inner disposition, part of our character that resembles a chronic sickness (p. 148). As counselors, we are cognizant of the research that indicates psychology’s point of view regarding sin.  The theoretical framework of psychology does not consider it a viable concern. Christian counselors are aware of universal sin and personal sin. The Word of God has proved us with ample Scriptural references to support that position. “Behold, I was shapen in iniquity; and in sin did my mother conceive me” (Ps 51:5 King James Version). “for all have sinned and fall short of the glory of God” (Ro 3:23 New International Version).  The Scriptures address sin and its abhorrence to God.

 

However, Christian counselors are concerned with the theological construct surrounding sin and how individuals should recognize that they need to establish and maintain an intimate healing relationship with God.  God deals with each person and their sin. The presentation on confronting sin declared,

But our job is to deal with the people in front of us and let God deal with the sin. And so it’s important for us to help our clients understand that conviction for sin and sorrow for sin and repentance are gifts from God!   For many people, healing cannot begin because they are determined to remain in control of every dimension of their lives, and their main motive for coming to counseling is to be more in control of their lives (“Week 7: 1 Presentation: Counseling Methods Related to Confrontation and Confession[PowerPoint Slides],” 2015, Slide: The work of the Holy Spirit).

Before Christian counselors can begin the confrontation process with a counselee, they must deal with their sin and attitude of confession, contrition, and repentance.

As Christian counselors, we determine if confrontation will violate any ethical and spiritual standards; we are called to “do no harm” (McMinn, 2011, p. 176).  We will ask the three questions presented to us by McMinn:

 

  1. Will the confrontation help to establish a healthy sense of self?
  2. Will the confrontation help to establish a healthy sense of need?
  3. Will the confrontation help to establish a healing relationship?

 

Here is a real-life example of how confrontation can cause apparent lifelong irreparable damage to a Christian. In one of my classes this year, we posted a response to an issue of integrity within Christian leaders.  Student Z declared that she will, “Never darken the doors of a church as a member again” (personal communication, Spring, 2015 [I am choosing not to post the date).  This Christian young lady was brow beaten by a pastor who thought that she had committed an atrocity that she did or did not commit [I will not state either way what the actual situation was] and required contrition or else.  She was writing about the incident seven years after the fact. She is still not attending any church as a permanent member and stated, “When I need mentoring I will find someone I can trust” (Student A).

The damage to this person’s psyche was intense.  Is it irreparable? No! When she listens to God’s voice and finds someone whom she can trust, and that counselor can probably use silence, pondering, or gentle, empathetic questioning she will confess, repent, and allow the Holy Spirit to peel away the layers of damage she experienced.  She is not ready for direct censure. It will take some time in the counseling relationship before she will be ready for a direct approach. Trust must be established first.

 

Finally, our desire is to see people healed but we don’t have to see them healed now.  The Christian counselor’s job is to take that burden to the cross. A Christian Counselors is to pray without ceasing for the counselee (McMinn, 2011).   Ron Hawkins proposed, “God is already working with the counselee and the counselor” when they both enter the counseling relationship (Hawkins, 2015, Phase 2). Joyce believes that when a Christian counselor and a counselee connect they do so as part of God’s plan for their lives. It is a divine appointment.  One orchestrated by our Heavenly Father. “ Being confident of this very thing, that he which hath begun a good work in you will perform it until the day of Jesus Christ” (Phil 1:6 KJV).

In conclusion, as Christian counselors this is our goal,

 

We pray as we breathe, inhaling in the wisdom of God’s presence in this moment, exhaling our frantic need…Sometimes we pray aloud with our clients – and here is where all the science, ethical issues and techniques discussed in this chapter come in handy but most often we do not. Still, we sit in prayer” (McMinn, 2011, p. 109).

Pray on my friends and serve you are called to a high calling.

N.B.:  Sorry about the dissertation, but this topic is near and dear to my heart. I have seen the results of confrontation gone array many times, and it is a sight to behold. It is something that does not please our Heavenly Father.  It has been a learning experience reading all of your wonderful thought out posts.  I hope that our paths cross again as we continue of the adventure that our Heavenly Father has started with us.

Joyce has been beating up on herself about not praying long enough for herself, or spending enough sustained time in personal prayer. When Joyce reread McMinn’s summary about student comments on how they handled prayer she was jarred by the realization that she is consistently praying throughout the day about something she thought, said, or did. Praying about what she will be doing next and whom she will be doing it with.  Praying for her attitude to be right and for Joyce to “be Jesus” to others as she travels through her day.  She forgot that praying without ceasing means just she was doing.  She did a self-evaluation after reading the Ortberg book and found herself wanting in the area of prayer.  She will address that in her soul care paper. She does not think that she could ever pray enough for her.  Her mind must become at one with God and on-going and continual confession, reading the Word of God, more times of solicitude and prayers are some of the spiritual disciplines that will make that happen. Just sitting and listening to the voice of her Heavenly Father and what He has to say to her as He speaks to her through His word is a process that brings joy. She wants that joy to be experienced by all of her counselees.

 

References

 

Hawkins, R. (2015). Week 5: Finding additional information that helps for session one phase one [html]. Lecture presented at Introduction to pastoral counseling, Liberty University. Retrieved from Blackboard: https://learn.liberty.edu

 

McMinn, M. R. (2011). Psychology, theology, and spirituality in Christian Counseling (Revised ed.). Carol Stream, Illinois: Tyndale House Publishers, Inc. Google Books.

Moitinho, E. (2015). Week 6: 3 Prayer and the Christian counselor [Video file]. Lecture, Liberty University Integration of Psychology and Theology. Retrieved from Blackboard.Liberty.edu

Ortberg, J. (2010). The me I want to be: Becoming God’s best version of you. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan. Google Books.

Week 7: Presentation: Counseling methods related to Confrontation and confession[PowerPoint slides]. (2015). Lecture 1, Liberty University Integration of Psychology and Theology. Retrieved from Blackboard.Liberty.edu

 

According to the APA Publication Manual, reference entries are not needed for the Bible and other major classical works

Aside

Theo 510 Spring 2017 DBs

Contents

Discussion Board Topic 1. 1

Discussion Board Topic 2. 2

Discussion Board Topic 3. 5

Discussion Board Topic 4. 7

 

 

Discussion Board Topic 1

 

Based upon your reading of chapter 1 in Enns’ text, how has the study of this chapter affected your understanding of what is biblical theology and its relationship to the other disciplines?  What would happen to a church or denomination that does not actively learn or apply biblical and systematic theology to its teaching ministry?  Has this happened to your church or denomination?

 

How has the study of this chapter affected your understanding of what is biblical theology and its relationship to the other disciplines?

The study in this chapter was an excellent reminder of the tenure of the information presented in both the NBST [New Testament Introduction], OBST [Old Testament Introduction] and Survey of the History of Christianity classes offered by Liberty University.  The diversity of theological constructs posited by theologians as documented in the “biblical theology movement” from Eichrodt to von Rad proffer possibilities for confusion and could lead to disbelief if an individual is not grounded in the truth of God’s word (Enns 2014, 23). The infusion of liberalism into biblical theology and the growth of neoorthodoxy fostered led by the historical method of examining Scripture denied the authority of Scripture (23-24). It is impossible to maintain a biblical base to Scripture when the authority of Scripture is the eliminated.

As a methodology, biblical theology posits a narrow focus of parts Scripture from a historical frame of reference and is exegetical in nature (24). Whereas and the extensive focus on systematic theology utilizes Scripture and sources outside of Scripture to unravel truths or doctrinal concerns of the whole Scripture (24-25).  Biblical theology presents theological constructs or doctrines from a specific theologian or biblical era; however,  systematic theology exegesis all scriptural references to the proffered doctrine or theological construct. The knowledge posited in chapter one of the text concerning the difference between the how, why, process, and progress of biblical theology when juxtaposed against the what, product and a viewpoint from the culmination of God’s revelation of systematic theology clarified the value of both forms of methods of exploring the truths of the Bible (27-28).

 

What would happen to a church or denomination that does not actively learn or apply biblical and systematic theology to its teaching ministry?

When a church or denomination negates active engagement in the biblical and systematic theology to its teaching ministry the ministry becomes stale in the presentation of Scripture to the membership. Examination of Scripture and the application of Scripture to a Christians life fosters personal growth as indicated by Acts 17:11 and practiced by the Bereans.  Negating the use of the above disciplines above prevents the growing of disciples who are equipped to grow other disciples. No pastor or denomination has a complete understanding of all Scripture.  The church universal received an admonishment from Peter to grow in the grace and knowledge of our Lord and Savior 2 Pet 3:18. 

Has this happened to your church or denomination? 

The staleness of doctrine and the riveted use of Scripture happened to the Worldwide Church of God. I attended the Worldwide Church of God from 1971 in London UK until 2002 when I left the Savannah, Georgia congregation. When the leadership of the church broadened its study of Scripture using both the biblical and systematic theology methods of studying the Bible the church when through significant doctrinal changes that led to a complete change of doctrine and beliefs.  Personally, when I began to use both methods to study Scripture my personal understanding of biblical truths changed because I used the writings of sources for reference that were not written by writers from my church.   I did not leave the church because of the doctrinal changes.  I left because of a personal problem, and the pastor was not equipped to proffer spiritual guidance.  Finally, studying God’s word from both standpoints proffers a more rounded understanding of theological constructs.

Bibliography

Enns, Paul. The Moody Handbook of Theology. Revised and Expanded ed. Chicago: Moody, 2014.

 

Discussion Board Topic 2

After reading Enns’ section on “Gifts of the Holy Spirit” (ch. 21), do you agree or disagree with his conclusion that select spiritual gifts ceased after the time of the Apostles and are no longer in use today?  Provide the needed scripture to substantiate your position.

“Gifts of the Holy Spirit” is a highly charged theological construct that has divided the Church of the Living God for centuries. Enns posited that the select spiritual gifts have ceased. Enns provided an explanation for spiritual gifts ” first, a spiritual gift to an individual is God’s enablement for personal spiritual service (1 Cor. 12:11). Second, a spiritual gift to the church is a person uniquely equipped for the church’s edification and maturation (Eph. 4:11–13)”.[1] The point of reference provided by Enns concerning the explanation for spiritual gifts defines one’s acceptance of cessation of the gifts.

Statement: As the church of the twenty-first century grows and functions and discontinuity of the spiritual gifts are evident this fledgling theologian affirms that the initial purpose of the spiritual gifts was a means of authenticating the work of the early church, but the display of the spiritual gifts is not normative of the church today. Within the confines of word count and the need to reduce this argument to a readable level the discussion below focuses on the gifts of apostles, prophets, the Holy Spirit, tongues, and healing.

 Apostles

Enns repeatedly pointed to the closure of the Canon of Scripture as evidentiary proof of the cessation of the gifts due to the inerrancy, and revelatory nature of the gifts.[2]  Historians and early church fathers iterated the closure of the canon; therefore, documentation of the glory of God, as evidenced by the spiritual gifts, and the inerrancy of Scripture no longer warranted authentication. Josephus declared the three divisions of the Old Testament (OT) and cited not only the names but also the number of the books contained in the OT.[3] Scholars such as Ryle detailed the three separate sections in the OT canon and offered the specific dates of recognition for each division of the Scripture.[4] Ryle proposed completion dates for each section. The “Law” around 432 BC; The “Prophets” an approximate authentication date of 200 B.C., lastly the “Writings” indicated a  completion date of before 100 BC but iterated that recognition did not occur until about AD 100.[5] Early church fathers such as Athanasius – who lived after the death of the last writer of a canonical book namely the Apostle John – also recognized the books of the OT canon and its divisions as well as the books of the New Testament (NT) and their apostolic nature of the writers in his Paschal letter.[6]

The apostle Paul addresses the foundations of the church as “And are built upon the foundation of the apostles and prophets, Jesus Christ himself being the chief corner stone” (Eph 2:20 KJV).[7] Note that Paul iterated “the foundations of the church” not “the church” or “the continuation of the church.” The word of the apostle and prophets of the early church was without error (see Deut. 18:20, 22 for proofs of the role of the prophet).  Theologians – who believe in the supremacy of God and the fact that He cannot lie and the fact that Scripture is without error – cannot indicate a time during the Bible when prophetic utterances of the writings of the canon of Scripture produced a falsehood or were in error. This point is pivotal when it comes to the belief that scripture is inerrant. Therefore, with no apparent indication in the NT that the roles assigned to the persons chosen by the Lord as Apostles and or prophets continued after the death of John and the Apostle Paul. [8]Persons reference the two witnesses in Revelation 11:1-14 note God’s word calls then witnesses and not prophets.  John’s writings about the end times do not reference the use of any of the gifts referenced in chapter 21.

Holy Spirit
Concerning the gift of the Holy Spirit, Peter declared, “Repent and be baptized” then you shall receive the gift of the Holy Spirit. Acts 10:45. Peter brought to remembrance “the gift of the Holy Spirit” had been poured out on the Gentiles also.” [What language were they speaking or understanding? Scripture does not indicate that. Is it possible that Peter was hearing them speak in His tongue? Scripture again does not make this clear in this instance. The Scripture simply stated “[individuals heard] them speak with tongues and magnify God” (v.46). When “tongues” first appeared in Scripture, each person heard their “mother language” being spoken by someone who was not bi-lingual.

And when the day of Pentecost was fully come, they were all with one accord in one place. And suddenly there came a sound from heaven as of a rushing mighty wind, and it filled all the house where they were sitting. And there appeared unto them cloven tongues like as of fire, and it sat upon each of them. And they were all filled with the Holy Ghost, and began to speak with other tongues, as the Spirit gave them utterance. And there were dwelling at Jerusalem Jews, devout men, out of every nation under heaven. Now when this was noised abroad, the multitude came together, and were confounded, because that every man heard them speak in his own language. And they were all amazed and marvelled, saying one to another, Behold, are not all these which speak Galilaeans?  And how hear we every man in our own tongue, wherein we were born? Parthians, and Medes, and Elamites, and the dwellers in Mesopotamia, and in Judaea, and Cappadocia, in Pontus, and Asia,  Phrygia, and Pamphylia, in Egypt, and in the parts of Libya about Cyrene, and strangers of Rome, Jews and proselytes, Cretes and Arabians, we do hear them speak in our tongues the wonderful works of God (Acts 2: 1-11).

It is apparent that the language spoken by the persons in the initial appearance of the gift of tongues was understandable by the individuals in the audience even though the speaker uttered another language. Every person who believes in Jesus Christ as their Savior receives the Holy Spirit (1 Cor.12:13). John 14:17 declares “Even the Spirit of truth; whom the world cannot receive, because it seeth him not, neither knoweth him: but ye know him; for he dwelleth with you, and shall be in you.” It is apparent that every believer received this gift during John’s time and even today. Does the church need to hear a person speaking in a foreign language today for us to believe that they are a child of God? No! Scripture speaks of Christian no longer needing milk.  Having said that this Christian believes that it is possible for a person sitting in a congregation where the pastor is preaching in English to hear the Word of God in their language and accept Christ as their personal Savior. God’s timing is not man’s timing, and He will use whomever He needs to use to reach an unsaved person.

Healing

In this dispensation of the church, it is unnecessary to utilize the gift of healing as a show of God’s power. God does not need to work through a human being, and or an object to heal his people. James 5:13-15 declared, “Is any among you afflicted? Let him pray. Is any merry? Let him sing psalms. Is any sick among you? Let him call for the elders of the church; and let them pray over him, anointing him with oil in the name of the Lord: And the prayer of faith shall save the sick, and the Lord shall raise him up; and if he has committed sins, they shall be forgiven him.” Each believer has direct contact with God.  No believer needs to go to a particular person for “healing” today. Yes, we should be praying for God to intervene and cure a believer if that is within His will for them James 15:16).

Finally, today believers live by faith and not by sight. The need for the spiritual gifts ceased at the close of the canon and as the church matured. This topic will probably bring about many interesting responses.
Bibliography

Athanasius. Easter Letter AD 357 39. Grand Rapids: Christian Classics Ethereal Library. Accessed January 31, 2017. https://www.ccel.org/ccel/schaff/npnf204/Page_552html.

Enns, Paul. The Moody Handbook of Theology. Revised and Expanded ed. Chicago: Moody, 2014.

Josephus, Flavius. Against Apion 1. Accessed January 31, 2017. http://www.pseudepigrapha.com/josephus/apion-1.html.

Ryle, Herbert Edward. The Canon of the Old Testament: An Essay on the Gradual Growth and Formation of the Hebrew Canon of Scripture. Reprint. London: Macmillan and, 1909.

Notes

[1] Paul Enns, The Moody Handbook of Theology, Revised and Expanded ed. (Chicago: Moody, 2014), 283.

[2] Ibid., 285-286.

[3] Flavius Josephus Against Apion 1, accessed October 14, 2016, http://www.pseudepigrapha.com/josephus/apion-1.html; Anthony Frost, “Tracing the Emergence of a Canon of Holy Scripture in Churches,” Anglican Historical Society Journal 57 (April 2014): 28-29, accessed September 12, 2016, Ezproxy Ebrary.

[4] Herbert Edward Ryle, The Canon of the Old Testament: An Essay on the Gradual Growth and Formation of the Hebrew Canon of Scripture, Reprint (London: Macmillan and, 1909), 93.

[5] Ibid.

[6] Athanasius. Easter Letter AD 357 39. Grand Rapids: Christian Classics Ethereal Library. Accessed September 29, 2016.https://www.ccel.org/ccel/schaff/npnf204/Page_552.html.

[7] Unless otherwise noted, all biblical passages referenced are in the King James Version (Public Domain).  I use this sitehttps://www.biblegateway.com/
[8] See(Matt. 10:1–15; Acts 15:4, 6,22, 23; 2 Cor. 12:12; 1 Cor. 9:1–2; 15:5–8; Gal. 1:12; 1 Cor. 15:8).

Discussion Board Topic 3

 

After reading Enns’ section on “Reformation Soteriology,” critique and evaluate his assessment of Calvinism (Reformed) and Arminianism on the select topics of atonement and faith and works (Enns, ch. 30).  Would your church denomination be in agreement with the Reformed or Arminian or some modified position?

Calvinism and Arminianism: Atonement

According to Enns, Calvin taught atonement for a select group of people decided by the Godhead through the process of predestination – or the “elect” (Enns 2014, 483). Calvin’s concept of the atonement being applicable the elect coincides with the Calvinistic view of predestination (483). On the other hand, Arminian theology considers the death of Christ a “substitute for a penalty” that appeased the God’s judicial system (484). However, Scripture does not support either the Calvinism or Arminianism theology on atonement.  Act 2:40 chronicles the Apostle Peter’s plea with the people to “save yourself from this untoward generation” (Unless otherwise stated all scriptural references come from the public domain King James Version of the Bible KJV.) Election negates Peter’s declaration to the people if Christ’s death only applies to a select group of individuals. Peter iterated the same sentiment in 1 Pet 2:23 with no indication of Christ’s death applying to only an elect group of people. The words of the Lord in Matt 24:14 clearly indicates that the gospel is preached to all individuals in all the world. Köstenberger and O’Brien affirm the premise of the application of a substitutionary death for all individuals in all nations (Köstenberger and O’Brien 2001, 87-109).  Enns presented a brief view of the Calvinistic and Arminian view of atonement.  To facilitate a deeper understanding of the difference in the theological concept of the atonement from both theologians required Enns to extrapolate a richer discussion on the topic.

Calvinism and Arminianism Faith, and Works

Enns reported Calvin considered salvation unconditional and independent of any action on the part of the recipient (483).  Moreover, Enns stipulated that Calvin taught that men must shed their previous life and live righteous repentant lives while simultaneously believing the gospel. Calvin posited that justification requires acceptance before The Almighty through righteousness that comes through faith (485). Consequentially, justification is demonstrable as a declaration before individuals of the “righteousness of faith” (486). However, the contention then would be neither faith nor works are needed if the “elect” are predetermined and have access to the family of God as the sole purview of a few people.

In like manner, Enns discussed the Arminian “conditional election” view (486). Conditional election dictates God’s election of individuals He already “knows will believe in Christ”; however, Arminianism supports the applicability of Christ’s death to all of humanity (486). Subsequently, when the believer becomes sinful the conditions of election fall into place and the believer loses salvation (486). At this juncture, the core Christian beliefs of faith and works, as exemplified by Calvinism and Arminianism, required more extrapolation by Enns. Enns left too many questions unanswered in this presentation. Granted Enns offers a more detailed explanation in another section of the book but fails to cite the upcoming discourse; thus, leaving the reader wondering how the theologians could arrive at the shallow conclusion presented in chapter 30.

The Beliefs of My Church

The church believes that the Great Commission is an active part of every Christian’s life commanded by The Lord before His final ascension; therefore, evangelism is not the sole purview of an evangelist, neither is it a spiritual gift. The church believes that the Lord Jesus Christ is the eternal Son of God who became man without ceasing to be God, having been conceived by the Holy Spirit and born of the virgin Mary, in order that He might reveal God and redeem sinful man (John 1:1-2, 14; Luke 1:35). The church believes that the Lord Jesus Christ accomplished redemption for all of humanity through His death on the cross as a substitutionary sacrifice and that our justification is made sure by His actual, physical resurrection from the dead (Earley and Wheeler 2014, 31-35; Terry 2013, 9-24; Romans 3:24; 1 Peter 2:24). Fourth, the church believes that the Lord Jesus Christ ascended into heaven and is now exalted at the right hand of God, where, as our high priest, He fulfills the ministry of representative, intercessor, and advocate (Acts 1:9-10; Hebrews 7:25, 9:24; Romans 8:34; 1 John 2:1-2). Finally, the church believes that in an act of faith and trust in Jesus, the repentance of our sin leads transference from us to Him and His righteousness brings a justified relationship with God and facilitates life in Christ as a new creation.

Bibliography

Earley, Dave, and David Wheeler. Evangelism Is. Nashville: B&H Publishing Group, 2014, Kindle. 

Enns, Paul. The Moody Handbook of Theology. Revised and Expanded ed. Chicago: Moody, 2014, Google Books. 

Kostenberger, Andreas J., and Peter Thomas. O’Brien. Salvation to the Ends of the Earth: A Biblical Theology of Mission. Leicester, England: Apollos, 2001, Google Books. 

Terry, Justyn. “The Forgiveness of Sins and the Work of Christ: A Case for Substitutionary Atonement.” Anglican Theological Review 91, no. 1 (Winter 2013): 9-24. Accessed February 13, 2017. ProQuest Ebrary.

 Discussion Board Topic 4

Which of the contemporary theology topics researched by Enns would be considered the most relevant to the contemporary church? Explain why you believe this to be so. Based on cultural trends, what do you anticipate to be the next “major” issue the contemporary church will need to address?

Christianity stands on the edge of time in a manner that has never been realized by any religious group. Throughout the world, people are experiencing tyranny, suffering, hopelessness, and a sense of “godforsakeness” that they have never experienced before (Moltmann, A Broad Place, 31). The most relevant contemporary topic presented by Enns that opens the way to the cross for a broken and suffering world through the theology of evangelicalism (Enns 2014, 654-656). The general election of this nation proved to Americans that the need for religious teaching, lifestyle, and governance that is mainstream and sticks to Christian beliefs that maintains a “trunk” of the tree biblical context meets the needs of the populace.

Enns identifies why evangelicalism presents a Christian worldview to the public, and to people looking into the world of Christianity, that looks firm and solidly grounded in Scripture and the tenets of historical Christianity (654-656). The doctrinal affirmations of evangelicalism hold to the Nicene Creed [the doctrine the Trinity, the concept of verbal plenary inspiration, and the foundational doctrines of the reformed church (654; “Nicene Creed,”). The idea of universal sin and the redemption of humankind through the suffering of God on the cross “reconciles” humanity unto the creator, lies at the center of evangelical theology (Enns, 654). Moltmann describes the importance of the cross for Christians as he iterates

There is a medieval picture which shows Christ descending into hell and opening the gate for someone who points to himself as if he were saying, ‘And are you coming to me?’ That is how I have always felt. Jesus’ Godforsakenness [Godforsakenness is a term coined by Moltmann to describe the feeling the Lord when He cried out “My God, My God why have you forsaken me (Matthew 27:46; Mark 15:34).] as on the cross showed me where God is present — where He was in my experiences of death, and where He is going to be in whatever comes. Whenever I read the Bible again with the searching eyes of the Godforsaken prisoner I was, I am always assured of its divine truth” (Moltmann 2009, 31).

The evangelical gospel offers hope and the ability for broken people to be “reconciled to God” (Enns, 654; 2 Cor 5:19). Faith in Christ stands as the cornerstone of the doctrinal tenets of evangelicalism, not works alone (Ro 5:1). Evangelicals believe in sharing the message of the gospel and the process of evangelism (Enn, 655). The act of sharing the message of the good news translates the Scripture of loving one’s neighbor as themselves into active agape love. Sharing the gospel does so because the very act of evangelism demonstrate the ability to think of all of humanity the way that Christ thought of humanity when He sent the disciples out to share the good news with all people until the end comes. Stott proffers an apt definition of what evangelism means to Kingdom Mission “. . . .the Bible gives us the message for world evangelization. The Lausanne Covenant defined evangelism . . . . . Paragraph four begins:

To evangelize is to spread the good news that Jesus Christ died for our sins and was raised from the dead according to the Scriptures and that as the reigning Lord he now offers the forgiveness of sins and the liberating gift of the Spirit to all who repent and believe. (Stott 2009, 22; Lausanne Covenant: The Nature of Evangelism as quoted by Stott).

Why is evangelicalism most relevant to the contemporary church?

Evangelism is most pertinent to the modern church because the world needs Christ. Moffett proposes that evangelism is only part of the mission of the church, but it opens a venue for sharing the gospel of the good news with people who are blind, oppressed, imprisoned, or poor (Moffett 2009, 598). To qualify his definition of evangelism Moffett declares “evangelism is not. . . . Christian action and protest against the world’s injustices” (Moffett, 599). Moffett explains that biblical evangelism ensures that a Christian’s vertical relationship with the Triune God comes first, and then a horizontal relationship with our neighbor is second to our relationship with God (599). Moffett has placed into contemporary language the dictates of the Shammah from Deuteronomy 6:4-9 repeated by The Lord in Matthew 22:37-39 (NIV) “‘Love the Lord your God with all your heart and with all your soul and with all your mind.’ This is the first and greatest commandment. And the second is like it: ‘Love your neighbor as yourself.” On this Scripture “or the Shammah” hangs all of the Old and New Testament theology of God’s Kingdom Mission that started with Abraham and ends with the return of the Lord. Love is an ageless construct. Love is a human need that stems from the very core of the God of love. An evangelical’s love for God and man is embodied in evangelical theology and powers all evangelicals to look first to the triune God as the source of all hope and love (Neal, 2009, 61). Then the evangelical’s love for God extends that hope out to their neighbor as they embrace the cross of Jesus Christ as the place where all hope begins (Neal, 2009, 61).

What is the next major issue that the contemporary church needs to address?

The next major issue that the present church needs to address is the reality and magnitude suffering people all over the world and the biblical answer to that suffering. As one views the news, at any time during the day, a graphic picture of the world fraught with turmoil, impoverishment, distrust – in politicians and the church, division, and mayhem present itself to Christian theology. How does one address the needs of these people as Christ did when He healed the sick, fed the poor and even cried over the emotional and-and spiritual state of Jerusalem, and for Lazarus’ family as they suffered?

We live in a world where 80% percentage of humanity is “living on less than $10.00 per day (Shah 2013, Poverty Facts and Stats). How do evangelicals make Christianity impactful or beneficial to people living lives fraught with suffering and impoverishment? How do evangelicals present a gospel and an eschatological hope as a present reality rather than a future promise of resolution of people’ current pain? What real hope, coupled with faith and the reality of the freedom engender in the promise of the cross, can Christianity offer to people who do not see an end to their suffering? The “Savior” presented as a solution to a suffering world cannot be radicalized socialism or the political aspirations of any political leader. The hope offered to the world must be centered on the reality of the cross (Moltmann 2015, 99). The presentation of the reality of the cross to the world as a whole, to young Christians, and to people who see no hope at the end of their daily struggles will determine the effectiveness of the gospel presentation. It will never negate the gospel of Jesus Christ neither can it prevent God’s Kingdom Mission, but it will change the nuclei from which the gospel is disseminated.

Bibliography

Enns, Paul. The Moody Handbook of Theology. Revised and Expanded ed. Chicago: Moody, 2014, Google Books.

Moffett, Hugh. “Evangelism: The Leading Partner.” In Perspectives on the World Christian Movement: A Reader, by Ralph D. Winter, Steven C. Hawthorne, Darrell R. Dorr, D. Bruce. Graham, and Bruce A. Koch, 598-99. Pasadena: William Carey Library, 2009.

Moltmann, Jurgen. A Broad Place: An Autobiography. Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 2009, Google Books.

Moltmann, Jurgen. The Crucified God. Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 2015, Kindle.

Neal, Ryan A. Theology as Hope: On the Ground and Implications of Jurgen Moltmann’s Doctrine of Hope. Eugene: Wipf and Stock, 2009, Google Books.

“Nicene Creed.” Nicene Creed. Accessed February 26, 2017. https://www.ccel.org/creeds/nicene.creed.html.

Shah, Anup. “Poverty Facts and Stats.” Global Issues. January 1, 2013. Accessed February 26, 2017. http://www.globalissues.org/article/26/poverty-facts-and-stats.

Stott, John R. W. “The Bible in World Evangelization.” In Perspectives on the World Christian Movement: A Reader, by Ralph D. Winter, Steven C. Hawthorne, Darrell R. Dorr, D. Bruce. Graham, and Bruce A. Koch, 21-26. Pasadena: William Carey Library, 2009.

Aside

Previous Older Entries

© You Are Not The Only One Ministries & Consulting Services Inc.,  All Rights Reserved.

Unless otherwise cited Written devotionals and posts on this page are the property of this ministry. You-Tube Videos are not the property of this ministry.

%d bloggers like this: