Discussion Boards for Paco 500

Contents

Discussion Board 1. 3

  1. What does it mean to “Possess My Soul through Self-Care and Mentorship?”. 3

Self-care. 3

Mentorship. 3

  1. What is the overarching purpose of “Possessing My Soul?”. 4
  2. What are the current self-care/resiliency themes being discussed in the readings and literature? 4
  3. How does one identify, solicit, and engage mentorship?. 4
  4. What self-care and mentorship strategy best fits your current soul-care context?. 5

Discussion Board 2. 6

Rationale for Solution Based Short-Term Strategy. 6

Brief Description of Solution-Based Short-Term Pastoral Counseling. 6

Key components of the pastoral counseling process. 7

The nine guiding assumptions of the pastoral counseling construct 7

  1. God is already active in the counselee. 7
  2. Complex problems do not demand complex solutions. 7
  3. Finding Exceptions Helps Create Solutions: 7
  4. The counselee is always changing: 7
  5. The counselee is the expert and defines the goals: 8
  6. Solutions are co-created. 8
  7. The Counselee is not the problem: The problem is. 8
  8. The counseling relationship is positional: 8
  9. If it is not broken, do not fix it: 8

The three tenets that help a counselor stay focused on the solution rather than the problem are: 8

Use of  SBSPC and demonstrating fit 8

The four phases associated with SFBT. 9

Phase One. 9

Phase Two (Hawkins, 2015, Phase 2) 9

Phase Three: (Hawkins, 2015, Phase 3) 10

Phase Four (Hawkins, 2015, Phase 4: Final Project) 10

Discussion Board 3. 11

Identify and describe Phase One distinctives: 12

The distinctives are: Purpose, Goal, Chief Aim, Role and responsibility. 12

Purpose: 12

Goal: 12

Chief aim; 12

Role/Responsibility: 12

Briefly discuss how you will align your DISC relational style to match the care seeker’s style. 12

The care seeker for this post is Bruce Murakami (Rice, 2015, p. 2). 13

What insights and/or techniques will resource these challenges?. 13

Identify a marker that indicates you have been invited into the care seeker’s story. 13

Bruce’s response to the miracle question, 13

Care seeker’s Behavioral Position. 13

What portrait, definition, key thoughts, and/or assessment insight do you need to consider during the supportive feedback?. 13

Portrait 14

Assessment Insight 14

After reviewing intake information and getting care seeker’s present story, how will you know whether or not a referral is needed?. 14

Discussion Board 4. 15

Phase Two distinctives:  According to Hawkins (2015) The Phase 2 distinctives are. 15

Purpose: 15

Goal: 15

Chief Aim: 15

Role/Responsibility: 15

Guiding Assumption: 15

Key Insight to Remember: 16

Identify and describe a marker that indicates you have collaboratively “imagineered” a picture of life without the problem. 16

During the supportive feedback break. 16

Definition(s) & Key thoughts: 17

Assessment insight: 17

Wise counsel: 17

Discussion Board 5. 18

In the event relapse, resistance, and/or sameness is encountered, identify and describe techniques beneficial to action plan’s timely execution. 22

 

 

Discussion Board 1

  1. What does it mean to “Possess My Soul through Self-Care and Mentorship?”
  2. What is the overarching purpose of “Possessing My Soul?”
  3. What are the current self-care/resiliency themes being discussed in the readings and literature?
  4. How does one identify, solicit, and engage mentorship?
  5. What self-care and mentorship strategy best fits your current soul-care context?

 

Response:

a.       What does it mean to “Possess My Soul through Self-Care and Mentorship?”

 

Self-care

Self-care is the process of establishing routines, coping mechanisms, deploying the spiritual disciplines of prayer, Bible study, solitude, silence, chastity, and meditation, as well as procedures that ensure that your mind, body, and spirit are healthy(Donahue, 1996, pp. 51-52; McMinn, M. R., Lish, R. A., Trice, P. D., Root, A. M., Gilbert, N., & Yap, A,., 2010: (Staley, McMinn, Gathercoal, & Free, 2012). Spiritual transformation occurs in our souls as we utilize these disciplines (Baker, 1998, pp. 139-140). According to Rikli, (2010), the process of feeding her spirit through the spiritual disciplines, and taking care of her body through eating correctly and exercising is another resource that demonstrates self-care. Taking care of one’s self is essential to spiritual and physical stability. Avoiding burn out is facilitated by self-care (Wilson & Hoffman, n.d., What is Shepherd’s care?). The Lord left us that example when he left the crowds for periods of solitude and prayer; as well as mentorship through his discussions with His Heavenly Father were “spirit and life to Him” John 6:63 KJV).

Mentorship

Mentorship is a construct of holding someone accountable for their lifestyle and spiritual processes but is also the vehicle through which encouragement, modeling of the spiritual disciples of the Christian life and opportunities to be heard and healed while enduring life’s battles occur (“Mentoring,” 2007, para. 2). Mentoring is an essential part of the self-care process.

b.      What is the overarching purpose of “Possessing My Soul?”

  1. Matthew Henry (2014) declared that Christians must be diligent to maintain their personal decorum, sustain mental health, and spiritual health (Henry, 2014 “Luke 21:19 commentary,”). Furthermore, Henry (2014) asserts that maintaining one’s composure is possessing one’s soul. According to the Geneva Study Bible, possessing one’s soul is an outward demonstration of self-control or the ability to control your temper (“Luke 21:19 Commentary Geneva Study Bible,” 2014). Carbonell (2008) affirms both Henry (2014) and the Geneva Study Bible’s assertion that the ability to control your temper is an outward manifestation of an individual’s ability to exercise self-control (p. 199). Therefore, one purpose of possession one’s soul is to demonstrate the spiritual gift of self-control, forbearance, and gentleness (Gal 5:22-24 NIV). Pastors work with people on a daily basis, and these gifts will enhance communication became they will be able to listen more intently with a temperate spirit (Petersen, 2007).
  2. A second purpose of possessing one’s soul is it is an essential skill when solving people puzzles. This is especially true if the pastor is a “D” type personality because “Ds” tend to become angry when they are not being heard. Developing the ability to control your temper/anger defines you as a child of God and shows your spiritual maturity of being angry without committing a sin (Eph 4:26 NLT).

c.       What are the current self-care/resiliency themes being discussed in the readings and literature?

 

McMinn, M. R., Lish, R. A., Trice, P. D., Root, A. M., Gilbert, N., & Yap, A,., (2010) Posit that the current themes for self-care and resiliency are relational in nature, “ intrapersonal, family, and community”(p. 570). According to Proeschold-Bell, Yang, Toth, Rivers, & Carder (2013), resiliency is defined as a measure of the presence of God in ministry and the daily life of a pastor (p. 878). Ellison, Roalson, Guillory, Flannelly, & Marcum (2009) define self-care and resiliency as how proficiently a pastor handles the stressors in his/her life, (p. 300). This thought process correlates with understanding how to handle the stressors in one’s life and the trigger that may lead to emotional explosions that hamper self-care and resiliency; understanding your own DiSC personality type and that of others will empower pastors to take care of their emotional and spiritual well-being as well as the congregants (Carbonell, 2015). Meek, McMinn, Brower, & Burnett (2003 proposed that being intentional in self-care as it relates to the spiritual disciplines and fostering healthy relationship are all hallmarks of self-care and resiliency.

d.      How does one identify, solicit, and engage mentorship?

One identifies a mentor by ascertaining whether or not the person is growing in the spirit, trustworthy, honest, and vulnerable enough to take ownership of their mistakes (Krejcir, 2008, para. 1). Mentorship is engaged according to the needs of the mentee. (para. 1). Solicit the mentorship of an individual who understands the importance of remediation and individual intervention; a person who will launch an intervention for you – in love – as needed. Mentees must engage the services of a mentor who understands how to utilize the SFPC process in counseling (Krejcir, 2008, para. 1; Kollar, 1997).

e.        What self-care and mentorship strategy best fits your current soul-care context?

The self-care and mentorship strategy that best fits this writer is the SPFC model.  It speaks to the soul of the person as well as their emotional needs (Krejcir, 2008, para. 1; Kollar, 1997).The spiritual disciplines and a deep understanding of the disciplines will help Joyce to grow vertically with her Heavenly Father and horizontally with humanity (Rikli, 2010).The self-care strategy of being disciplined in monitoring what is eaten and physical activity is crucial to the maintenance of this writer’s physical health. Understanding her limitations based on her physical health and knowing when to stop engagement in activities that will impair her health is essential to longevity (Rikli, 2010).

 

References

Baker, H. (1998). Soul keeping; Ancient paths of spiritual direction. Colorado Springs, CO: NavPress.

Carbonell, M. (2015). What is the everything DiSC Profile? Retrieved August 31, 2015, from https://www.onlinediscprofile.com/what-is-the-disc-profile/

Donahue, B. (1996). Leading Life-Changing Small Groups. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan. Google Books.

Ellison, C. G., Roalson, L. A., Guillory, J. M., Flannelly, K. J., & Marcum, J. P. (2009). Religious resources, spiritual struggles, and Mental Health in a nationwide sample of PCUSA clergy. Pastoral Psychology, 59(3), 287-304.

Kollar, C. A. (2011). Solution-focused pastoral counseling: An effective short-term approach for getting people back on track [Google Books Version]. Retrieved from https://play.google.com/books/reader?printsec=frontcover&output=reader&id=TCDMGVY3vw0C&pg=GBS.PP1

Krejcir, R. J. (2008). What to look for in a mentor. Retrieved from http://www.discipleshiptools.org/apps/articles/default.asp?articleid=42629&columnid=4216

McMinn, M. R., Lish, R. A., Trice, P. D., Root, A. M., Gilbert, N., & Yap, A. (2005). Care For Pastors: Learning From Clergy and Their Spouses. Pastoral Psychology, 53(6), 563-581.

McMinn, M. R., Brower, C. M., & Burnett, T. D. (2003). Maintaining personal resiliency: Lessons learned from evangelical protestant clergy. Journal of Psychology and Theology, 31(4), 339-347. Retrieved from http://ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/login?url=http://search.proquest.com/docview/223672186?accountid=12085

Mentoring. (2007). Retrieved from http://www.discipleshiptools.org/pages.asp?pageid=64822

Petersen, J. (2007). Why don’t we listen better? Communicating & connecting in relationships. Lincoln City: Petersen Publications. [Google Books Version].

Proeschold-Bell, R. J., Yang, C., Toth, M., Rivers, M. C., & Carder, K. (2013). Closeness to God among those doing God’s work: A spiritual well-being measure for clergy [Abstract]. Journal of Religion and Health, 53(3), 878-894.

Rikli, M. (2010, Summer). Soul care [PDF]. Valley Forge: The Ministers Council.

Staley, R. C., McMinn, M. R., Gathercoal, K., & Free, K. (2013). Strategies employed by clergy to prevent and cope with interpersonal isolation. Pastoral Psychology, 62(6), 843-857.

Wilson, M., & Hoffman, B. (n.d.). Shepherd Care: Preventing ministry failure by supporting ministers. Retrieved from http://www.shepherd-care.org/

Discussion Board 2

Briefly outline and describe the essential elements of a solution-based, short-term pastoral counseling strategy such as its goal-orientation; brief (i.e., number of sessions) and time-limited (i.e., length of each session) nature; basic tenets and guiding assumptions (briefly explain each tenet and assumption), essential interpersonal skills, and possible behavioral positions (i.e., attending, blaming, willing).

Each phase and its corresponding distinctives should be clearly delineated: purpose, goal, chief aim, roles-responsibilities, and guiding assumptions.

What will you need to do in order to provide a physical setting and corresponding resources that might cultivate a safe and secure helping relationship?

Rationale for Solution Based Short-Term Strategy

The symbiotic relationship between the uniqueness of the care-seeker and the present problem presents a solution to the care-seekers counseling needs.

Brief Description of Solution-Based Short-Term Pastoral Counseling

The Solution-Based, Short-Term Pastoral Counseling (SBSPC) strategy considers the client to be more important than the problem; but recognition of the problem form of the problem leads to a conceived resolution (Hawkins, 2015).   SBSPC ensures that clients are empowered to focus their energies and direction on their self-care; the care-seeker is focused on God’s purpose for their life while addressing the issues and problems that they are presently facing (Jeremiah 29:11; Hawkins, 2015, para 2).  According to Hawkins 2015, the process is a short-term one. The SBSPC process is considered short-term because pastors recognize the boundaries within which they operate while providing this self-care service (Hawkins, 2015, “Terms”: para, 2). Consequently, the purposefulness of the sessions is measured by their brevity, are deliberately time-limited and structured with a focus on the number and length of sessions (Hawkins, 2015, “Terms”: para, 3). This process is bolstered by the use of the specific phases with the qualifying distinctives (Hawkins, 2015, “Terms”: para, 3). Although this strategy is solution-based, it differs from Kollar (2011) because it proposes that the person should be considered as the holder of the solution to the present problem  (Hawkins, 2015, “Terms”: para, 2).

Key components of the pastoral counseling process

As discussed by Hawkins (2015), the SBSPC process contains a fluidly embodied in the essential counseling sessions known as “distinctives” (para. 2).

The distinctives are

1) purpose,

2) goal

3) chief aim,

4) responsibility/role and

5) guiding assumptions (Hawkins, 2015, “Structure,” para. 2).

Hawkins (2011) continued his discourse by explaining that the distinctives are embedded in each of the four phases of SBSPC (“Structure,” para. 2). Hawkins (2011) defined the short-term process of SBSPC as: “brief-session should be limited to, 50, 60, 90 minutes, time-limited, and focused meaning the counselor and counselee choose how many sessions and how long they will counsel (“Structure,” para. 3).

The nine guiding assumptions of the pastoral counseling construct

1. God is already active in the counselee.

  1. Pastoral counseling sessions biblical worldview states that God is already working out a solution for the counselee’s life (Phil 1:6 ESV).

2. Complex problems do not demand complex solutions.

From the Christian worldview construct the Holy Spirit is already at work in the individual’s life to resolve the present problem.  Therefore, the counselor deploys listening carefully, using the appropriate body language, and asking the appropriate MECSTAT questions to aid the counselee to arrive at a solution.  (Greenberg, Ganshorn, & Danilkewich, 2001; Davies, 2011; Grohol, 2013). The solution is one that speaks to a complex problem, but unlike traditional therapy, it does not take months or years to arrive at the solution (Greenberg, Ganshorn, & Danilkewich, 2001; Davies, 2011; Grohol, 2013).

3. Finding Exceptions Helps Create Solutions:

As the counseling session ensues exceptions to the perceived problems are presented powered by guidance from the Word of God (Ecclesiastes 3:1; (Visser, 2011).

4.   The counselee is always changing:

The Biblical viewpoint is, “Grow in the grace and knowledge of our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ” (2 Pet 3:18 KJV).  As growth occurs in the counselee, he/she changes. According to Grohol (2013), one of the most important things that bring about change is the ability to listen actively and respond to the counselor/pastor while he or she is engaged in the SFT process]. The counselee is in charge of how far and how fast they grow.

5. The counselee is the expert and defines the goals:

The counselee is the expert on the problem; therefore, the counselor facilitates the process of problem resolution as they move through the phases of SBSPC.  They determine how long the sessions will be and how many times they will need to meet with the counselor (Greenberg, Ganshorn, & Danilkewich, 2001)

6. Solutions are co-created.

During this process, a symbiotic relationship of co-creation is developed between the counselor and the counselee.  Together they develop a worldview where positive personal change is attainable.  Daily experiences of positive interactions are the focus of the counseling sessions.  The counselee visualizes the growth in themselves and sees the solution of the problem as a reality.

7. The Counselee is not the problem: The problem is.

Unlike psychopathology, the SBSPC counselor is not labeling the counselee as the problem. Knowing extensive information about the problem is not necessary for change to begin in the counselee (Greenberg, Ganshorn, & Danilkewich, 2001, Assumptions of therapy, p. 2291)  Noting scenarios that clearly identify positive outcomes empower the counselee to see a solution for the problem and to isolate themselves from the problem; God loves us regardless of our challenges (Romans 5:8 ESV:)

8. The counseling relationship is positional:

The counselor positions the counselee to focus on a personal goal; this enables the counselee to develop a crystal vision of a solution; they can use the miracle dream process to facilitate this position.

9.  If it is not broken, do not fix it:

Focus on what is working.  Channel the counselee’s efforts on the things that are working to arrive at a solution for the problem  (Kollar, 2011, pp. 130-134).

         The three tenets that help a counselor stay focused on the solution rather than the problem are:

 

      • Tenet one: “If it’s not broken, don’t fix it!”
      • Tenet two: “Once you know what works, do more of it!”
      • Tenet three: “If it’s not working, do something different!” (p. 133).

 

Use of  SBSPC and demonstrating fit

 

As a counselor, the writer agrees with the simplicity and brevity of the tenets.  They are pointers in the counseling process that guides counseling sessions and facilitates the SBSPC process.  A friend came over to see the writer to discuss a broken relationship with a longtime friend.  As she talked the strategies of listening, questioning, confirming that she had indeed identified the problem, and was already working on a solution for the problem was evident (Kollar 2007).  Demonstrating fit was not as hard as the writer envisioned with a face-to-face person; her body language was comfortable and her eye-to-eye contact conveyed that we were freely talking about her concerns without fear or reservation (Kollar, 2007).  The writer was shocked to hear herself asking the miracle question to her friends of thirty years (Howard, 2015). The writer was also delighted to see the tension leave her friend’s face when she realized that she had already identified the problem and was actually describing a solution that she had used in two other scenarios.  The writer’s friend is highly educated and has much training in how to work with patients and individuals who are experiencing duress.  Therefore, the writer proceeds to notify her friend that the strategy that she was using appears to be working so, “If it is not broken, don’t fix” (Kollar, 2007).  She also affirmed for her friend that because she “knows what works [she] should do more of it”  (Kollar, 2007).  The session lasted for more than 60 minutes.  The writer will not see her friend until she drives back to visit her child.  However, an invitation to chat on Facebook, or utilize Facetime for more sessions was suggested and accepted.  The writer knows that embracing these strategies and taking ownership of them will make supporting individuals who are under stress much easier.

Intentionally listening to another person without analyzing what they are saying and engaging in “passive listening” is a trait of INFJs (Kollar, 2007;”Functional analysis of the INFJ,” 2015).  The writer is also aware that practicing these strategies will take time, but it is a worthwhile pursuit because she counsels people daily, and wants the Holy Spirit to be her guide while she is demonstrating the love of Christ to others (Hawkins, 2015).

The four phases associated with SFBT

 

            Hawkins (2015) asserts that the four phases of SFBT require no more than four counseling sessions.  The phases are: 

Phase One

Purpose: In session one: The care-seek is encouraged to present Story One)

Goal: the problem it describes.

The counselor’s chief aim: Listen Well

Role/responsibility: The counselor builds rapport/demonstrates fi with the counselee. As an INFJ compassionately listening to the counselee as he/she talks, especially is the counselee is an ESFP will give the person an opportunity to express themselves, Counselee talks and reveals the problem while the counselor actively listens.

Guiding Assumption(s): “God is already active in the counselee” (Kollar, 2011, p. 62–67); “The counseling relationship is positional” (p. 93).

Key Insight to Remember: Movement from phase one is initiated by an invitation by the counselee into their current worldview(Hawkins, 2015, para. 1)

 

Phase Two (Hawkins, 2015, Phase 2)

Purpose: Develop the Care-seekers Preferred Story/Solution (Session Two)

 Goal: Goal description/formulation

Chief Aim: Collaborate well [demonstrate fit while working with the counselee to develop a solution for the problem)

Role/responsibility: The counselor demonstrates fit; utilizes the appropriate questing techniques while the counselee sets the direction for problem-solving. The Counselor tacks with counselee’s process. But this occurs collaboratively. The testing of tests counselee’s notions of reality/do-ability cannot be determined by the counselor.

Guiding Assumption:  Even in this phase “The counselee is not the problem, the problem is (Kollar, 2011, pp. 77–80:(Greenberg, Ganshorn, & Danilkewich, 2001, Benefits and caveats, p. 2294). The pastoral counselor is reminded that the” counselee is the expert and defines goals” (Kollar, 2011, pp. 72–75); “Solutions are cocreated” (pp. 76–77). This is reminiscent of Jesus’ encounter with the Samaritan woman.  She talked and He listened to her story. When the resolution of the problem was established a goal was established and she declared to all that she knew who she was; the goal acknowledgment of sin and acceptance of the Messiah was reached (John 4:1-42).

Key Insight to Remember: Jesus used the “Miracle Question” with the Samaritan woman. Then she was able to move to the next phase. All three Tenets were used in His discussion with the Samaritan woman (Kollar, 2011, pp. 82–84).

 

Phase Three: (Hawkins, 2015, Phase 3)

Purpose: to clarify and Execute Action Plan (Session Three)

Goal: Vision (i.e., goal) Clarification: What is the goal for the counselee/ In the case of the Samaritan woman it was ‘go and sin no more’; and share Jesus with the rest of the town.(John 4:28-30

Chief Aim: Execute well

Role/Responsibility: Counselor builds rapport/demonstrates fi. The Counselor and Counselee actively participate in building hope and supporting forward progress. Using the Miracle question here will give the counselee a vision of their life without the problem

Guiding Assumption(s)? Always remember that, “Complex problems do not demand complex solutions; the goal of this phase is to encourage the counselee to visual that “finding exceptions helps [them] to create solutions” (Kollar, 2011, pp. 67–70; (Greenberg, Ganshorn, & Danilkewich, 2001, p. 2271). Jesus made an exception when he went to Samaria; His disciples were not prepared to address the problem that existed between the Jews and Samaritans (John 4:27).

 

Phase Four (Hawkins, 2015, Phase 4: Final Project)

Purpose: Connect Care-seeker to Community (Session Four)

Goal: Consolidate and Support Change: the counselee takes ownership of the change that has occurred in them.

Chief Aim: Connect well: the counselor has established fit with the counselee and extends the support of the community of the body of Christ One of our guiding assumptions is that change is best supported and secured through the body of Christ (Kollar, p. 20).  Small groups will facilitate this process for the counselee, because it becomes part of the discipleship process for them (Earley & Dempsey, 2013, Never underestimate the power of the group: Location, 2607).

 

References 

Davies, N. (2011, August 25). Active listening through body language. Retrieved fromhttps://healthpsychologyconsultancy.wordpress.com/2011/08/25/active-listening-through-body-language/.

Earley, D., & Dempsey, R. (2013). Disciple making is . . . How to live the great commission with passion and confidence. Nashville, Tenn.: B & H Academics. [Kindle Edition].

Functional analysis Of the INFJ. (2015). Retrieved from http://www.humanmetrics.com/personality/infj

Greenberg, G., Ganshorn, K., & Danilkewich, A. (2001). Solution-focused therapy: Counseling model for busy family physicians. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov.ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/pmc/articles/PMC2018451/pdf/11768927.pdf

Grohol, J. M. (2013). Become a better listener: Active listening. Retrieved from http://psychcentral.com/lib/become-a-better-listener-active-listening//

Hawkins, R. (2015). Overview of a solution-based short-term strategy [html]. Lecture presented at Week 4: PACO500_B01. Retrieved from https://learn.liberty.edu/bbcswebdav/courses/PACO500_B01_201540/

Hawkins, R. (2015, September 12). F.A.I.T.H for solution-based short-term pastoral counseling (SBSPC) [Document]. Reading presented at Liberty University PACO 500: BO1. Retrieved from https://learn.liberty.edu/blackboard

Kollar, C. A. (2011). Solution-focused pastoral counseling: An effective short-term approach for getting people back on track [Google Books Version]. Retrieved from https://play.google.com/books/reader?printsec=frontcover&output=reader&id=TCDMGVY3vw0C&pg=GBS.PP1

Visser, C. (2011). The progress-focused approach: 21 progress-focused techniques. Retrieved fromhttp://www.progressfocused.com/2011/07/21-solution-focused-techniques.html

 

Discussion Board 3

After reviewing the readings, and available presentations, lecture notes, articles, and/or web-engagements, identify and discuss essential elements and techniques for building rapport with a specific care seeker from our case study—Crossroads: A Story of Forgiveness (i.e., Bruce, Joshua, Brody, Justin, or Melissa).

  • Identify and describe Phase One distinctives: purpose, goal, chief aim, role/responsibility,
  • Briefly discuss how you will align your DISC relational style to match the care seekers Identify care seekers behavioral position (i.e., attending, blaming, or willing) and how this might influence relational alignment.
  • Discuss the challenges you might face in actively listening without judgment and in checking any advice giving tendencies or excessive self-disclosure. What will insights and/or techniques resource these challenges?
  • Identify and describe a marker that indicates you have been invited into the care seekers story?
  • After receiving the invitation to enter the care seekers world, what portrait, definition(s), key thought(s), and/or assessment insight do you need to consider during the supportive feedback break, before making a commitment to counseling (review Clinton & Hawkins, 2009, p. 10)?

After reviewing intake information and getting the care seekers present story, how will you know whether or not a referral is needed? Though counseling will continue for the sake of this learning experience, choose at least one scenario from Johnson & Johnson (see corresponding Summary and Guidelines in chs. 2–5) to illustrate your role/responsibility in the event a referral is needed. The selected scenario does not have to align with this case study; its value is for assessing your understanding of a referral networking.

 

Identify and describe Phase One distinctives:

The distinctives are: Purpose, Goal, Chief Aim, Role and responsibility

Purpose:

During the purpose distinctive the counselor will get the care seekers present story – this normally happens during the first session of SFT.  This occurs when the counselor is listening and is listening attentively because it presents an opportunity to the questions that will clarify the counselee’s goal (Hawkins, 2015, para. 1; Greenberg, Ganshorn, & Danilkewich, 2001, p. 2290).  During this distinctive, the counselor is listening for possible strengths and even exceptions to the problem that the counselor is presenting to him/her (Kollar, 2011, p. 139).

Goal:

During the goal distinctive the care seeker describes the problem (Hawkins, 2015, para. 2).  The care-seeker develops a sense of being heard (Kollar, 2011, p. 140).

Chief aim;

The counselor listens and listens attentively to understand the problem, not find a solution (Hawkins, 2015, para. 2). Remember the guiding assumptions and the fact that “God is already active in the care-seeker, and the counseling relationship is positional” (Kollar, 2011, pp. 92-93).

Role/Responsibility:

The care-seeker speaks; the counselor listens, comprehends the care seekers DISC style, and demonstrates fit, genuine empathy while grasping an understanding of the care seeker’s life with the presenting problem (Hawkins, 2015, para. 2; Kollar, 2011, p. 145).  All of these skills and activities lead to the use of the MECSTAT process (Greenberg, Ganshorn, & Danilkewich, 2001, p. 2291).  Phase one does not end until the care seeker has invited the counselor into their world, and they have committed to counseling (Hawkins, 2015, para. 4).   It would be appropriate to ask the miracle question at this juncture Greenberg, Ganshorn, & Danilkewich, 2001, p. 2291; Kollar, 2011, 164).

 

Briefly discuss how you will align your DISC relational style to match the care seeker’s style.

Identify care seeker’s behavioral position (i.e., attending, blaming, or willing) and how this might influence relational alignment.

The care seeker for this post is Bruce Murakami (Rice, 2015, p. 2).

Bruce’s relational style is “D/C” with “D” as the highest measure on the scale.  Bruce is results-oriented and he makes fast decisions; such as forgiving the killer of his wife and daughter and launching a campaign to teach to anyone who has experienced a similar life event without thought for what this campaign would do to his living children (“Good Listening: Listen Up! It’s More Complex than You Knew.,” 2012, High D; Carbonell, 2008, pp. 16-17). “Ds” are so focused that it makes them appear to be uncaring and disconnected from others; consequently Brody’s unconnected with Bruce (Carbonell, 2008, p. 17).  Bruce’s driving personality style created interpersonal communication challenges for him; he listens at a level 1 stage (Petersen, 2007, p. 18). However, because Bruce likes challenges he will consider ‘the problem’ to be something that he will want to solve and solve rapidly (Carbonell, 2008, p. 17). The writer’s DISC relational style is high C/S (Carbonell, 2008, p. 110).

What insights and/or techniques will resource these challenges?

With the strength of listening as part of the “S” DISC relational style, the writer will listen attentively to Bruce, who is willing to present his story.  With the knowledge that, “God is already active in the counselee” (Kollar, 2011, p. 60), and that “The counseling relationship is positional” (p. 93). The writer will demonstrate fit by being an empathic and engaged listener.

Identify a marker that indicates you have been invited into the care seeker’s story

 Bruce’s response to the miracle question,

“Imagine that, while you are sleeping tonight, a miracle happens. You wake up tomorrow, and you sense that you are on track toward making a decision. What will you be doing differently that will tell you that you are on track I your relationship with Brody?” will indicate that Bruce has invited the counselor into the care seeker’s story (Greenberg, Ganshorn, & Danilkewich, 2001, p. 2291).  His indication that change is needed and that he is willing to make that change proffers an invitation.

After receiving the invitation to enter the care seeker’s world, what portrait, definition(s), key thought(s), and/or assessment insight do you need to consider during the supportive feedback break, before making a commitment to counsel

Care seeker’s Behavioral Position

Bruce has determined that he is losing his son Brody. He is seeking counsel to mend the broken relationship.

What portrait, definition, key thoughts, and/or assessment insight do you need to consider during the supportive feedback?

Bruce does not understand the relational disconnect that he is experiencing with his son.  He is not aware that it is not just a result of the sudden death.  He does not understand his son’s personality style.  Supportive feedback will include Bruce’s willingness to forgive and his insight of the fact that Brody is still grieving and feels as if he is losing his father too (Rice, 2015, p. 11).

Portrait

A “sudden death can be more difficult to grieve . . . . it often leads to feelings of abandonment” (Rice, 2015, p. 11).  Bruce is aware of this abandonment that his son is feeling, and he is not sure how to address it (Rice, 2015, p. 11).  To some degree, he feels responsible for it because he has not been there for him, and even after his mother’s death, the forgiveness mission excluded Brody (Rice, 2015, pp. 10-11).

Assessment Insight

Bruce has been so involved with his mission of forgiveness that he has missed Brody’s fear of losing his father.

After reviewing intake information and getting care seeker’s present story, how will you know whether or not a referral is needed?

The counselor will ascertain the nature, intensity, and possibility of imminent danger to either the care seeker or the care seeker’s child, if the interpersonal disconnect continues (Johnson & Johnson, 2014, Ministerial triage and the art of referral, para. 4; Clinton & Hawkins, 2009). This scenario will determine the urgency of the need for referral to an MHT (para. 5).

References

Carbonell, M. (2008). How to solve the people puzzle: Understanding personality patterns. BlueRidge, GA: Uniquely You Resources.

Clinton, T., & Hawkins, R. (2009). The quick-reference guide to biblical counseling. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Publishing Group. [Google Books Edition].

Good listening: Listen up! It’s more complex than you knew. (2012, July 6). Retrieved from http://datadome.com/newsblog/tag/disc-behavior/

Greenberg, G., Ganshorn, K., & Danilkewich, A. (2001). Solution-focused therapy: Counseling model for busy family physicians. PsycEXTRA Dataset, 27(November), 2289-2295. doi:10.1037/e537562004-001

Hawkins, R. (2015). Finding additional information that helps for session one phase one [html]. Lecture presented at Week 5: PACO500_B01. Retrieved from https://learn.liberty.edu/blackboard.

Johnson, W. B., & Johnson, W. L. (2014). The minister’s guide to psychological disorders and treatments. (2nd ed.).  New York, NY: Routledge – Taylor & Francis Group.

Kollar, C. A. (2011). Solution-focused pastoral counseling: An effective short-term approach for getting people back on track [Google Books Version]. Retrieved from https://play.google.com/books/reader?printsec=frontcover&output=reader&id=TCDMGVY3vw0C&pg=GBS.PP1

Petersen, J. (2007). Why don’t we listen better? Communicating & connecting in relationships. Tigard, Washington. Kindle.

Rice, D. C. (2015). Case study [Doc]. Lecture presented at PACO 500 introduction to pastoral counseling. Retrieved from Liberty University https://learn.liberty.edu/

Discussion Board 4

Phase Two distinctives:  According to Hawkins (2015) The Phase 2 distinctives are

Purpose: 

Develop the Care seekers Preferred Story/Solution (Session Two)

Goal: 

Goal description/formulation

Chief Aim: 

The chief aim of this phase is positive, collaborate, engagement and working well with the care seeker as the counselor demonstrates fit (Hawkins, 2015, para. 2). These procedures guide the care seeker to develop a solution for the problem and build the framework need for the change process to begin (Kollar, 2011, pp. 136-138).

Role/Responsibility: 

The counselor demonstrates fit; utilizes the appropriate questioning techniques while the care seeker sets the direction for problem-solving (Hawkins, 2015, para. 3).   The counselor recognizes that the care seeker is a competent individual who came to the interview seeking a solution to their problem; with that in mind the counselor should treat them with the same respect, care and compassion that they would want to be treated (Matthew 7:12; Kollar, 2011, pp. 136).  The use of exception questions clarify for the care seeker where they are in their journey; it also reveals the care seekers resources and the fact that they have ownership of the problem because they have achieved success (Greenberg & Ganshorn, 2003, p. 2).  According to Kollar (2011), the counselor tracks with care seeker’s progress as they follow the listening, questions, clarification, and provide feedback protocol detail in Figure 8.1. (p. 138). But this occurs collaboratively.  The care-seeker is not ready for phase three if they are still in a “blaming” position.  However, Bruce is willing to find a solution to his problem.

Guiding Assumption:

As in Phase One,

  • “The care seeker is not the problem, the problem is (Kollar, 2011, pp. 77–80: (Greenberg, Ganshorn, & Danilkewich, 2001, Benefits and caveats, p. 2294).
  • The pastoral counselor knows that the” care seeker is the expert and defines the goals” (Kollar, 2011, pp. 72–75).  According to Kollar (2011), the listening process is a symbiotic one.  The counselor listens attentively; the care seeker is aware that they are being heard (p. 140).
  • “Solutions are cocreated” (pp. 76–77). The Lord used this same strategy with people whom he encountered; the lepers (Luke 17:17), the disciples (Matthew 16:13-20), The rich man who wanted to follow him (Matthew 19:16-30).  Questioning reveals the heart of a person and solutions or resolutions occur after clarification is made.

Key Insight to Remember: 

Use MECSTAT where appropriate (Greenberg & Ganshorn 2003, Questions in SFT, p. 1). All three tenets are deployed throughout the counseling session (Kollar, 2011, pp. 82–84).

The care seeker for this post is Bruce Murakami, who is a willing care seeker (Rice, 2015, p. 2).

Bruce’s relational style is “D/C” with “D” as the highest measure on the scale.  Bruce is results-oriented, and he makes fast decisions. “Good.Listening: Listen Up! It’s More Complex Than You Knew,” 2012, High D).  It is very likely that he will expect to arrive at a solution to the problem in session two, so he can go on to his next challenge (Carbonell, 2008, pp. 16). “Ds” are poor listeners; however, their relational style places them in a problem-solving mode: this is an excellent point for counseling (“Good Listening: Listen Up! It’s More Complex Than You Knew,” 2012, High D).

According to Datadome, to maintain Bruce’s focus, lengthy questions will not demonstrate fit; therefore, present questions in a bulleted format. “Good Listening: Listen Up! It’s More Complex Than You Knew,” 2012, High D).  This strategy guarantees that the core conditions for listening are established and maintained based on Bruce’s personality style (Kollar, 2011). Congruence, unconditional positive regard, and empathy must be experienced by Bruce for fit to become a reality for him and the counselor (p. 224).

To ensure that Bruce maintains his focus on the solution to the problem and not rushing to a resolution, reiterate the miracle question (Hawkins, 2015, Phase 2, para. 4). The counselor is demonstrating fit by collaborating with the care seeker and utilizing her strengths of listening, and compassion.  Use the exception question to keep Bruce focused, because he needs to learn how to verbalize rather than assume conclusions (Carbonell, 2008, p. 17).  Clarifying questions will ease and expand his thoughts (Kollar, 2011, 138). However, because Bruce likes challenges, he will consider ‘the problem’ to be something that he will want to solve and solve rapidly (Carbonell, 2008, p. 17).   The supportive feedback break will give him an opportunity to think things through, and also facilitate an energy break for the counselor who is an INFJ.  Maintaining fit with someone who wants to be in control and forge ahead to the solution will be a challenge for the counselor.  Remembering the type of MECSTAT questions to ask and asking them in a way that fits Bruce’s DISC style will deploy collaborative portrait building and problem resolution process.

Identify and describe a marker that indicates you have collaboratively “imagineered” a picture of life without the problem.

Due to Bruce’s DISC style, paragraphed questions will lose his interest; subsequently, an appropriate miracle question for Bruce would be, “Pretend the problem is solved. What are you doing differently?” (Greenberg, Ganshorn, & Danilkewich, 2001, p. 2291). Bruce is now ready to formulate a goal for the problem of being non-communicative and disconnected from his sons.

During the supportive feedback break

Portrait; The counselor will reflect on the interview sheet and the notes were taken on the problem as presented by the counselee.  Bruce gave a scenario that he has been so busy demonstrating the love of Christ, through the act of forgiveness, that he has come to realize that his driving personality has cost him the love and attention of his remaining family (Rice, 2015).

Definition(s) & Key thoughts:

Bruce’s disconnection from his family emote feelings of loss.

  • Disconnection: Work has been his focus.  He has relied on his wife to keep the home fires burning and meeting the needs of the children. (Rice, 2015) – Now he has a negative feeling of being disconnected from others (Clinton & Hawkins, 2009, p.10).
  • Transference of grief: Sometimes people experience grief by transferring that emotion into another activity (Ogbonna, 2014, p. 92).  Bruce used the tenets of the Bible to offer forgiveness to the person who murdered his family: he channeled all of the energy, and grief, into his mission of demonstrative forgiveness(Rice, 2015, p. 4).  However, he did not grieve the loss of his wife and daughter with his children. Now he is experiencing a perceive grief for the loss of the relationship he does not have with his living children, “Grief is intense emotional suffering caused by a loss.” (Clinton & Hawkins, 2009, p. 121).  In Bruce’s case, he is grieving the loss of a relationship with his sons.

Assessment insight:

Ascertain if Bruce is experiencing any emotional trauma that must be addressed by a professional by asking the following questions:

  • Are you depressed about the current problem? (If the answer is yes)
  • On the scale of one to ten, how would you rate your level of depression about the current problem? (Rule out question) The higher the rating on the scale the sign for a referral to an MHT is solidified (Johnson & Johnson, 2014)
  • Clarify who died and how the death affected the care seeker, as well as each of his living children.  It must be clear that Bruce’s perceptions of the situation are realistic and not a part of his grief (Clinton & Hawkins, 2009, p. 123).
  • I Peter 5:7 “Cast all your anxiety on him because he cares for you.” comes to mind, at the same time, a person who is grieving does not want Scripture quoted to them.
  • Asking some of the assessment interview questions for grief and loss will solidify Bruce’s level of grief (Clinton & Hawkins, 2009, pp 120-121).
  • Ask Bruce on a scale of one to ten where is his relationship with his sons. This response will present itself as an exception or part of the wise counsel.  He is possibly reaching out more than he realizes.

Wise counsel:

Intentional listening will be deployed during wise counsel to guide further the decision as to the need for a referral (Petersen, 2007).

  • Bruce’s feelings of guilt about his disconnect from his sons must be addressed.
  • Discuss that everyone grieves differently.
  • Discuss his perceptions of Brody’s grief, as perceived by Bruce
  • Discuss the level of Joshua’s grief, as observed by Bruce.
  • Address his current relationship with his sons.  Draw attention to the exceptions in the relationships that are contrary to his thought processes. Address the manner in which he addressed his grief.  Address his exceptional behavior towards the murderer of his wife and daughter.  That exception is a part of his personality.  He can extend that same degree of compassion to his sons as they are going through their grief. Ask Bruce if he has a circle of friends with whom he can talk about his feelings.

References

Carbonell, M. (2008). How to solve the people puzzle: Understanding personality patterns. BlueRidge, GA: Uniquely You Resources.

Clinton, T., & Hawkins, R. (2009). The quick-reference guide to biblical counseling: Kindle Edition. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Publishing Group.

Good listening: Listen up! It’s more complex than you knew. (2012, July 6). Retrieved from http://datadome.com/newsblog/tag/disc-behavior/

Greenberg, G., & Ganshorn, K. (2003). Solution-focused therapy: A solution driven model for change. Canadian Family Physician, 47, 1-3. Retrieved from https://learn.liberty.edu/blackboard

Greenberg, G., Ganshorn, K., & Danilkewich, A. (2001). Solution-focused therapy: Counseling model for busy family physicians. Gail Greenberg. PsycEXTRA Dataset,27(November), 2289-2295. doi:10.1037/e537562004-001

Hawkins, R. (2015). Finding additional information that helps for session two phase two [html]. Lecture presented at Week 6: PACO500_B01. Retrieved September 23, 2015, from https://learn.liberty.edu/blackboard

Johnson, W. B., & Johnson, W. L. (2014). The minister’s guide to psychological disorders and treatments. [Google Books Version]. Retrieved from https://play.google.com/store/books/details?id=owyLAwAAQBAJ

Kollar, C. A. (2011). Solution-focused pastoral counseling: An effective short-term approach for getting people back on track [Google Books Version]. Retrieved from https://play.google.com/books/reader?printsec=frontcover&output=reader&id=TCDMGVY3vw0C&pg=GBS.PP1

Ogbonna, E. O. (2014). Mastering the power of your emotions: How to Control What Happens In You Irrespective of what happens to you [Google Books Version]. Retrieved from https://play.google.com/books/reader?printsec=frontcover&output=reader&id=4jIMBAAAQBAJ

Petersen, J. (2007). Why don’t we listen better? Communicating & Connecting in relationships[Kindle Edition]. Retrieved from Amazon.com.

Rice, D. C. (2015). Case study [Doc]. Lecture presented at PACO 500 introduction to pastoral counseling. Retrieved from Liberty University https://learn.liberty.edu/

 

Discussion Board 5

 

Chosen Care seeker Bruce (Rice, 2015)

Phase Three: (Hawkins, 2015, Phase 3)

Purpose: To clarify and Execute Action Plan

Goal: Vision (i.e., goal) Clarification: What is the goal for the counselee?  Bruce wants to connect with his sons emotionally. He has determined that he cannot do this alone.  He has ascertained that a plan of action would be to work on his relationship with Brody first. Then work on his relationship with Joshua who is in school. Then they will need to work together as a family to bring back the cohesion that existed when his wife and their mother was alive. Also, be mindful of God’s goal for Bruce’s life.  He is part of the formation of the resolution to Bruce’s problem (Kollar, 2011).  Using the MECSTAT questioning methodology reconnects Bruce’s to his dream, clarifies how he is coping now that he is in Phase 3 of the process  (Greenberg, Ganshorn, & Danilkewich, 2001).  Scaling questions will heighten the counselor’s knowledge of how well Bruce is progressing; they will also apprise Bruce of God’s work within his heart (Kollar, 2011, p. 393). Only Bruce can identify where he is in the process. He should be able to articulate how well he is coping with the problem and what progress he has accomplished since Phase One and Two.

 

Chief Aim: Execute the action plan with fidelity to aid Bruce in the resolution of his problem.  An action plan has been developed executing it will require the effective use of MECSTAT and reliance on the Holy Spirit to complete the work He has begun in Bruce ( Kollar, 2011; Phil 1:6). According to Howard, 2015, ” the idea of Phase Three is developing and maintaining forward progress. So, when you see that happening, secure and support responsible members, small group ministries.”.  This will prepare Bruce for Phase 4 if he is ready for it.

 

Role/Responsibility: Counselor builds rapport/demonstrates fit The Counselor and Counselee actively participate in building hope and support by moving forward.
 

Guiding Assumption(s)? Always remember that, “Complex problems do not demand complex solutions; the goal of this phase is to encourage the counselee to visual that “finding exceptions helps [them] to create solutions” (Kollar, 2011, pp. 67–70; (Greenberg, Ganshorn, & Danilkewich, 2001, p. 2271).

Briefly discuss how you will maintain rapport and DISC relational style alignment with care seeker’s current behavioral position (i.e., willing). & How to resolve any challenges that may arise. 

Bruce’s relational style is “D/C” with “D” as the highest measure on the scale.  Bruce is results-oriented, and he makes fast decisions. “Good Listening: Listen Up! It’s More Complex Than You Knew,” 2012, High D).  It is very likely that he will expect to arrive at a solution to the problem in session two, so he can go on to his next challenge (Carbonell, 2008, pp. 16). “Ds” are poor listeners; however, their relational style places them in a problem-solving mode: this is an excellent point for counseling (“Good Listening: Listen Up! It’s More Complex Than You Knew,” 2012, High D).

According to Datadome, to maintain Bruce’s focus, lengthy questions will not demonstrate fit; therefore, present questions in a bulleted format. “Good Listening: Listen Up! It’s More Complex Than You Knew,” 2012, High D).  This strategy guarantees that the core conditions for listening are established and maintained based on Bruce’s personality style (Kollar, 2011). Congruence, unconditional positive regard, and empathy must be experienced by Bruce for fit to become a reality for him and the counselor (p. 224). Utilizing the Talker Listener Card (TLC) will help Bruce to remain focused on the discussion points  (Petersen, 2007, p. 50).  Using the TLC will be a challenge for Bruce because he is a take charge and move forward personality type; consequently, when Bruce speaks first he is assuming his DISC personality style of “being in charge” and taking control of the situation   (“Good Listening: Listen Up! It’s More Complex Than You Knew,” 2012, High D). The TLC brings control to the situation and structures the session.  The TLC will structure the use of the MECSTAT process too.  The counselor will ask the appropriate questions when they have the “Talker” side of the card, and it forces Bruce to focus and listen. (Petersen, 2007).  Be mindful of the “thud” “Petersen, 2007).  Although it may be the counselor’s “turn” to speak, if the “thud” indicates that Bruce may need to continue his thoughts the counselor must allow Bruce to continue to speak (p. 68).

During the supportive feedback break

Portrait; The counselor will reflect on the interview sheet and the notes were taken on the problem as presented by the counselee.  Bruce gave a scenario that he has been so busy demonstrating the love of Christ, through the act of forgiveness, that he has come to realize that his driving personality has cost him the love and attention of his remaining family (Rice, 2015). Now Bruce is at a point where he is willing to deploy the action plan and move forward with reconciliation.

Definition(s) & Key thoughts:

Bruce’s disconnection from his family emote feelings of loss. His willingness to resolve the problem demonstrates that the Holy Spirit is working with him to be the father he wants to be to his children

  • Disconnection:  He has relied on his wife to keep the home fires burning and meeting the needs of the children (Rice, 2015).
  • Now he is at a point where he recognizes that the negative feeling of being disconnected from them can be resolved (Clinton & Hawkins, 2009, p.10).
  • Transference of grief: According to (Ogbonna, 2014) sometimes people transfer their grief to other activities. Bruce used the tenets of the Bible to offer forgiveness to the person who murdered his family: he channeled all of the energy, and grief, into his mission of demonstrative forgiveness (Rice, 2015, p. 4).
  • God’s will in the process of reconciliation: Does Bruce recognize that “God finishes what He has started?” (Warren, 2014).  God wants us to be reconciled with others (Matthew 18:15-16).
  • Decision making and the will of God.  Has Bruce arrived at a point in his action plan where he can engage in Family therapy with his children?

Assessment insight: Ascertain if Bruce has arrived at a point in his action plan where he can engage in Family therapy with his children?

  • Do you believe that it is God’s will for you to be reconciled with your sons? (If the answer is yes)
  • On the scale of one to ten do you think family therapy will aid in the reconciliation with your sons? How will it affect you already established action plan?  (Rule out question) The higher the rating on the scale the sign for a referral to a family therapist is solidified (Johnson & Johnson, 2014)
  • Clarify God’s intention for the family- Raise children by God’s standards (Eph. 6:4).  It must be clear that Bruce’s perceptions of the situation are realistic and not a part of his mission to demonstrate forgiveness (Rice, 2015; Clinton & Hawkins, 2009, p. 58).
  • Ask “How might God direct you toward His will or plan in this decision to begin family therapy?” (p. 53).  Family therapy might appear to a quick solution to a problem that is on it’s way to being resolved.  Be mindful that Bruce is a type”D” personality.
  • Asking some of the assessment interview questions for decision making will solidify Bruce’s desire for reconciliation and maybe moving forward to family therapy-if that is what the family desires, not just Bruce. His problem involves them too  (Clinton & Hawkins, 2009, pp 56-57).  Again his action plan is already working so “if it isn’t broken, don’t fix it (Kollar, 201).
  • Ask Bruce on a scale of one to ten where is his now – since counseling has begun- in the relationship with his sons. This response will present itself as an exception or part of the wise counsel.  He is possibly reaching out more than he realizes. In other words, the action plan is working.

Prayer Starter: This is an excellent prayer for Bruce: Dear Lord, thank You for the life of my dear wife and daughter. Our hearts are very heavy that they no longer here. Although this death may make no sense now, please bring sense from it, and glorify Yourself through it. Give us Your Holy Spirit as a Comforter in the minutes and hours and days to come and help us to understand each other’s needs at this time. Bring us closer together as a family and mend the broken hearted. (Clinton & Hawkins, 2009, pp. 55-56)

 

RECOMMENDED RESOURCES (as cited by Clinton & Hawkins, 2009, p. 56)

Graham, Billy. Death and the Life After. Thomas Nelson, 1994.

Lynch, Thomas. The Undertaking: Life Studies from the Dismal Trade. Penguin, 1998.

Nouwen, Henri. Turn My Mourning into Dancing: Finding Hope in Hard Times. Thomas Nelson, 2004.

Veerman, Dave, and Bruce Barton. When Your Father Dies: How a Man Deals with the Loss of His Father. Thomas Nelson, 2006.

Zimmerman, Dennis. Healing Death: Finding Wholeness When a Cure Is No Longer Possible. Pilgrim Press, 2007.

Focus on the family.. (2002). Moving forward: Dealing with grief. Retrieved from http://www.focusonthefamily.com/lifechallenges/emotional-health/moving-forward-dealing-with-grief

 

Wise counsel  & Action steps: Intentional listening will be deployed during wise counsel to guide further the decision as to the need for a referral (Petersen, 2007). Action Steps

  • Bruce is a man of faith and action (James 2:14-18).
  • Because Bruce said yes to family therapy.
  • Begin the referral process.
  • Remind Bruce about the steps for referral and the consent form that he signed before counseling began
  • Discuss the need for God to enter the process of reconciliation (Matthew 18).
  • Discuss that when we have peace about a decision we know that it is from God (I Pet. 5:7; Clinton & Hawkins, 2009, p. 58).  Bruce is experiencing peace because he has determined that he and his family can move forward to the joint resolution of their problems.
  • Discuss his perceptions of Joshua’s Brody’s grief, as perceived by Bruce and also how family therapy will help him to resolve that problem in his life (if Bruce’s answer was yes to family therapy).
  • Address any exceptions in his current relationship with his sons.  Draw attention to the exceptions in the relationships that are contrary to his thought processes. Address his exceptional behavior towards the murderer of his wife and daughter (Rice, 2015). Bruce forgave the sin of Justin in the same manner that Christ forgave him of his sin  (Matthew 6:12).
  • Build a dream, “You wake up one day and realize that the energy that you placed in the forgiveness process after your wife had died was redirected to the reconciliation of your son the disconnection no longer exists.”  What does your relationship with your sons look like now Bruce? That question matches his personality
  • Complete the referral process.  Ensure Bruce that you are there for any questions that he and or his new therapist may have for you.

In the event relapse, resistance, and/or sameness is encountered, identify and describe techniques beneficial to action plan’s timely execution.

 

 

  • Relapses are caused by an individual’s emotions traveling back in time to a location in the brain (Kollar, 2011) Using the task concept number 8 in Kollar (2011), will help Bruce to come forward to his present level of reasoning and emotions, Bruce’s faith and belief in God’s hand in his life will help the counselor and counselee to resolve the relapse (Kollar, 2011, p. 397) .
  • Discussing how God has brought him to the place of counseling.
  • Re-establishing the miracle question and the purpose for choosing to counsel in the first place will be a mental jog for Bruce.
  • Re-stating Bruce’s responses to exceptions in his relationship with his son’s that he has recognized that he was already on his way to reconciliation (Kollar, 2011).
  • Sameness: When this occurs using the above strategies will also refresh Bruce’s desire to move forward with the resolution of the problem (Kollar, 2011).  It is not likely that sameness will last very long in an individual with Bruce’s DISC – Style.  Sameness is incongruous to their personality

 

References

Carbonell, M. (2008). How to solve the people puzzle: Understanding personality patterns [Google Book]. Retrieved from Amazon.com.

Clinton, T., & Hawkins, R. (2009). The quick-reference guide to biblical counseling: Kindle Edition. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Publishing Group.

Good listening: Listen up! It’s more complex than you knew. (2012, July 6). Retrieved from http://datadome.com/newsblog/tag/disc-behavior/

Greenberg, G., Ganshorn, K., & Danilkewich, A. (2001). Solution-focused therapy: Counseling model for busy family physicians. Gail Greenberg. PsycEXTRA Dataset, 27(November), 2289-2295. doi:10.1037/e537562004-001

Hawkins, R. (2015). Finding additional information that helps for session two phase two [html]. Lecture presented at Week 6: PACO500_B01. Retrieved September 23, 2015, from https://learn.liberty.edu/blackboard

Johnson, W. B., & Johnson, W. L. (2014). The minister’s guide to psychological disorders and treatments[Kindle edition] (2nd ed.). Retrieved from Amazon.com.

Justice, J. A., & Garland, D. R. (2010). Dual relationships in congregational Practice: Ethical Guidelines for Congregational social workers and pastors. Social Work & Christianity, 37(4), 437-445. doi:http://search.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=55558046&site=ehost-live&scope=site

Kollar, C. A. (2011). Solution-focused pastoral counseling: An effective short-term approach for getting people back on track [Google Books Version]. Retrieved from https://play.google.com/books/reader?printsec=frontcover&output=reader&id=TCDMGVY3vw0C&pg=GBS.PP1

Lynch, Thomas. The Undertaking: Life Studies from the Dismal Trade. Penguin, 1998.

Ogbonna, E. O. (2014). Mastering the power of your emotions: How to Control What Happens In You Irrespective of what happens to you [Google Books Version]. Retrieved from https://play.google.com/books/reader?printsec=frontcover&output=reader&id=4jIMBAAAQBAJ

Petersen, J. (2007). Why don’t we listen better? Communicating & connecting in relationships[Kindle Edition]. Retrieved from Amazon.com.

Rice, D. C. (2015). Case study [Doc]. Lecture presented at PACO 500 introduction to pastoral counseling. Retrieved from Liberty University https://learn.liberty.edu/

Warren, R. (2014, May 21). God finishes what he starts. Retrieved from http://rickwarren.org/devotional/english/god-finishes-what-he-starts

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PACO 506 Discussion Boards

Contents

Discussion Board 1. 1

What did my educational experience look like in a country where the head of state is also the head of the church?. 2

Higher education experience that solidified this worldview.. 3

Religious experiences that fostered the belief of integration. 3

Discussion Board 2. 3

Secular Combatants and Christian Combatants. 5

Discussion Board 3. 5

Discussion Board 4. 6

A note from Dr. Holland. 7

Discussion Board 5. 8

References. 9

Discussion Board 6. 9

What are some cautions or possible negative impacts regarding the use of prayer in counseling?. 9

How do you decide when to confront sin in counseling and what form of confrontation to use?. 11

 

 

Discussion Board 1

  • Have your own education and experience stressed Athens (secular knowledge) or Jerusalem (theological or spiritual training)?
  • Do you see the Academy (human philosophy and knowledge) and the Church (Christian theology and spirituality) as fundamentally opposed to each other?
  • What factors in your personal religious background have led you to this view? When you reply to your classmate, be sure to include in your heading keywords to which you are responding.

Response:

The discipline of psychology includes altruism, compassion, and caring for others. When you study the original meaning of the term “psychology,” what do you discover? When we dissect the word, psyche in the original Greek ψυχή (psuchē) form means “soul” and -λογία (-logia) “study of.” Thus, the original meaning of psychology is “the study of the soul.” Who are the best to help people “study the soul” but people of faith! ~Prof Holland

Early educational experiences that fostered this worldview

The educational experience of my youth stressed both Athens and Jerusalem.  The writer was educated in Jamaica, WI and the United Kingdom where there is no separation of Church and state. The educational process did not compartmentalize Athens and Jerusalem (Entwistle, 2010, Location 56).  The writer does not believe that the Academy and the Church are fundamentally opposed to each other.  Blames argued that neither the Academy nor the church had absolute clarity on all matters (as cited by Entwistle, 2010, p.9).

When one wants to discover the diversity of “beliefs” that individuals espouse as absolute truth, and how those beliefs impacts one’s worldview, and psyche, just begin a discussion of the gift of tongue, and you will discover that the “Church” has multiple variations on a theme on that one topic alone. Just because we are Christian we assume that the word “Church” applies to Christians, actually it does not.  There are numerous belief systems that begin the title of their organization with the word church, and it has nothing to do with Christ.  For instance, the “Church of Satan.” We live in an age where the word “Church” can no longer be considered synonymous with the “Bible.”   They are not the same thing.  One is a religious organization, and the other is the very heart of God in written form

 

All knowledge comes to the source of all knowledge, and that is God. ” We must be careful, however, not to reinterpret Scripture based on the current whim of scientific or psychological opinion. When biblical and scientific interpretations are at odds, one must carefully review the basis upon which those interpretations are made. More will be said of this in later chapters of this book” (Entwistle, 2010, p. 153).  That statement is my position of what a Church presents as knowledge and what the Bible presents as knowledge.  I chose to state the Bible rather the Church because there are too many contentions within religious organizations.  There are no contentions with the word of God that can stand up to scrutiny.  The post was meant to insult any specific church, but to heighten the fact that man is fallible, and so are our words.

What did my educational experience look like in a country where the head of state is also the head of the church?

We started each day with morning Vespers, Bible reading, singing, and prayer. The works of C.S. Lewis were part of the educational process. Church history was taught as part of our history.  We had the right to pray over our meals, as do the children in American Public Schools. The Bible was an integral part of our educational process. That is available today in American public schools.  The Bible as Literature is a highly spirited class.  The discussions are interesting to especially when content and not the genre is being discussed.  England has changed since I was there and in attendance in school.  It now has a huge Muslim population, and there is a hue and cry to cease religious education, the reading of the Bible, and all thing “religious” in the schools.  So, far the population does not agree with that movement.  Memorization of the Bible started in school, not in church.  We were not a Church of England family.  I was baptized Catholic as a child. My Aunt was an Evangelist in a Pentecostal church.  I married into a Pentecostal church. But became a member of the – then Worldwide Church of God, It has since changed its name to Grace Communion International.  I am now a member of a Baptist church in South Carolina.  My children were both brought up in the Worldwide Church of God.  That church believed that the level of education that it provided for the students at the college should also be shared with the congregation.

Higher education experience that solidified this worldview

Due to the writer’s belief that all knowledge comes from God which clashed with the atheistic stance of her first psychology professor, she steered away from professors who categorically stated, “There is no God I am the only God there is.”  Her class assignments were arguments for the integration of both the science of psychology and the Supremacy of God’s Word. The Christian education received at Liberty University, during the Ed. S., and so far in this course, confirmed the writer’s belief that non-manipulative integration of the Academy and the Church is possible ( Entwistle, 2010, p.147).

Religious experiences that fostered the belief of integration.

The writer’s fifty-eight years of walking with The Lord and reliance on the Word of God as her instruction book for interpersonal relationships, and educational background at the higher education level, proffered the opportunity to integrate the two worldviews. The Academy construct provided the tool-set needed to meet the needs of emotionally disabled students through scientific research and methodology while utilizing the Holy Spirit and the Word of God as the force that empowered her mission of compassionately serving emotionally disabled students.

 

References

Christian denominations: Beliefs and theology. (2015). Retrieved from http://www.religionfacts.com/compare/denominations-beliefs

Entwistle, D. N. (2010). Integrative approaches to psychology and Christianity: An introduction to worldview issues, philosophical foundations, and models of integration (2nd ed.)Eugene, OR. Wipf & Stock Publishers, Inc. Kindle.

Moser, P. K. (2010). The evidence for God: Religious knowledge reexamined. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

35 largest Christian denominations in the United States. (2015). Retrieved from http://undergod.procon.org/view.background-resource.php?resourceID=87

Discussion Board 2

Psychology is just sinful human beings sinfully thinking about sinful human beings. Clarify your rationale for agreeing or disagreeing with this statement.

When one looks at this statement in its entirety it leads an individual to immediately presuppose that the statement is correct.  However, within the scope of all truth and all knowledge coming from the source of all truth and knowledge, God, the statement is in err and cannot be applied in a generalized manner to the subject, or practice,  of psychology (“Week 2: 1 Worldview Questions and Answers [PowerPoint Slides],” 2015, Slide 7).  According to Gaebelein (1968), Christ is truth . . . all knowledge is embodied in the truth of God’s word and who He is . . .and rests upon that Christian worldview (p. 19).

After the fall humanity was thinking and reasoning sinfully. ” Wherefore, as by one man sin entered into the world, and death by sin; and so death passed upon all men, for that all have sinned” (Romans 15:12 KVJ). Paul iterates that all have sinned and fall short of the glory of God (Romans 3:23 NIV).  When an individual accepts Jesus Christ as his Lord and Savior that state of sinfulness is no longer applied to them. “But ye are a chosen generation, a royal priesthood, an holy nation, a peculiar people; that ye should shew forth the praises of him who hath called you out of darkness into his marvelous light” (I Peter 2:9 KVJ).

A psychologist who integrates The Academy with Jerusalem cannot be considered an individual who is, “… just [a]sinful human being. . . . sinfully thinking about sinful human beings” (Entwistle, 2010, p. 12).  They are using their human abilities given to them by God, to better the lives of people who may be sinful or not-depending on their relationship with the Lord (“Week 2: 1 Worldview Questions and Answers [PowerPoint Slides],” 2015, Slide 7).  This statement can only be answered based on the individuals viewpoint of psychology and how it used within their worldview.  Hawkins (2015) declared that God is already at work in the heart of an individual who approached a psychologist for the resolution of their problem (Kollar. 2011 as cited by Hawkins, 2015, Phase 1). When the true integration of psychology, theology and spirituality occurs this statement becomes null and void (Moitinho, 2015).

References

Entwistle, D. N. (2010). Integrative approaches to psychology and Christianity: An introduction to worldview issues, philosophical foundations, and models of integration (2nd ed.)Eugene, OR. Wipf & Stock Publishers, Inc. Kindle.

Gaebelein, F. E. (1968). The pattern of God’s truth: Problems of integration in Christian education. Colorado Springs, CO: Oxford University Press.

Hawkins, R. (2015). Week 5: Finding additional information that helps for session one phase one [html]. Lecture presented at Introduction to pastoral counseling, Liberty University. Retrieved from Blackboard:https://learn.liberty.edu

Moitinho, E. (2015). Week 1: 3 Philosophical underpinnings of integrative counseling [Video file]. Lecture, Liberty University Integration of Psychology and Theology. Retrieved from Blackboard.Liberty.edu

Secular Combatants and Christian Combatants.

In chapter nine of Entwistle (2010) book, he describes Secular Combatants and Christian Combatants. Entwistle challenges us with “those with whom we disagree often have things to teach us” and encourages us to “ask ourselves what is to be learned and appreciated from” (p. 178) those who disagree with us. One thing I learn from combatants is their desire to maintain a level of “purity” in their worldview. Can anyone think of any other things we can learn from a combatant’s perspective?~Prof Holland

My response:

Combatants are determined to maintain, what they believe is the sanctity, of the Word of God and their relationship with him.  Their zealousness towards that end tells this writer that her position about the sanctity of her relationship with her creator should be just as intense. We live in an age where acceptance is the buzz word, and political correctness fuels conversations and many times leads to a waffling of a person’s convictions in an effort not to rock the boat so to speak.

 

Discussion Board 3

How can/should I counsel suffering people? Is the point of counseling to remove all suffering? Why or why not?

As I read this quote, I thought about David.  If ever a person depicted brokenness in God’s word it is David.  The man after God’s own heart who committed adultery murdered Uriah, and all of his soldiers, yet he wrote Psalm 40. This psalm describes David’s brokenness and the absolute joy, and unabashed release he experienced when that brokenness took him to a place where joy and worship through song completed his healing.

I waited patiently for the Lord; he turned to me and heard my cry.

He lifted me out of the slimy pit, out of the mud and mire;

he set my feet on a rock  and gave me a firm place to stand.

He put a new song in my mouth, a hymn of praise to our God.

Many will see and fear the Lord and put their trust in him (Psalm 40:1-3 NIV).

 

Counseling a broken person can bring about not just emotional, but spiritual healing.  When a Christian experiences that type of healing, through counseling, it releases the power of the Holy Spirit within them.  They go to their “Maker” with a different perspective on life.  They also experience a closeness that they did not have before.  McMinn (2011) declared, “In our sickness and pain, we grope for answers, for better understanding, for meaningful relationships. Our sickness leads us to God. God can restore and use broken vessels for divine purposes” (Kindle Loc. 482-483).

Peter is another example of brokenness.  He denied the Lord three times. But when the Holy Spirt came and healed that broken spirit within him that made him says, “I’m going fishing”, he stopped fishing for things that swim in the ocean. He reaped the largest “haul” as fishermen would say when he gave that powerful sermon in the book of acts.  His sermon demonstrated that his brokenness resulted in a closeness with his Savior that he did not have when he denied him or when he almost gave up and went fishing. The inner peace and joy that a counselor experiences when a care seeker arrives at that point in their walk is indescribable. So is the restoration that the care seeker experiences when the healing begins and is completed.

When we listen attentively to someone who is suffering that person is validated.  Petersen (2007), proposed that feelings heard and understood leads the speaker to believe that they have connected with the listener; he continues by iterating that knowing that others care enough about us to listen to us gives us value, and they take us seriously (p. 19).  Within the counseling relationship for trust to be established the care seeker must experience the emotions mentioned above or counseling will be ineffective.

References

Kollar, C. A. (2011). Solution-focused pastoral counseling: An effective short-term approach for getting people back on track. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Zondervan.

McMinn, M. R. (2011). Psychology, theology, and spirituality in Christian Counseling (Revised ed.). Carol Stream, Illinois: Tyndale House Publishers, Inc.

Petersen, J. (2007). Why don’t we listen better? Communicating & connecting in relationships. Tigard, Washington.

 

 

Discussion Board 4

How would you describe a “healthy sense of self”?

From the standpoint of being a counselor, the counselor should be aware of their professional limitations (Kollar, 2011). A counselor must also know their areas of spiritual weakness. They should be aware that their personal and or emotional challenges will impede the counseling process for some care seeker and be willing to refer them to someone else.  That is having a healthy sense of self.

Looking at selfhood as a construct; it is knowing who you are as an individual; it is the embodiment of having a real sense of self (“Week 4: 1 Multi-tasking in Christian Counseling [PowerPoint],” 2015, Slide: Professionalism in spiritually sensitive counseling).  It is not sinful to be aware of the gifts of understanding, creating, compassion, empathy, patience, discernment, and who you are in Christ. This enables a counselor to counsel in a Christ-like manner  (“Week 4: 1 Multi-tasking in Christian Counseling [PowerPoint],” 2015, Slide: Professionalism in spiritually sensitive counseling). According to McMinn (2011), a healthy sense of self or selfhood gives meaning to the healthy relationships we have with God and others (Kindle Loc 763).

When an individual has a negative sense of self it impacts their relational style with God, and others.  They pray but for the wrong reason. They enter relationships with others, but for the wrong reasons.  Always seeking fulfillment but never achieving that golden egg that the goose laid because they do not know who they are as an individual.  The quandary occurs when, as Christians, we perceive that it is evil and or sinful to acknowledge who we are in Christ, but that is not so within the theoretical framework of psychology.

McMinn proposed, ” When clinicians and personality theorists speak of self, they do not refer to reckless independence [ a person who behaves without regard for the emotional or physical safety of others] but to a capacity to distinguish one’s own identity from others in the environment (Kindle Loc.905-907).  As a Christian trained in how to work with students with emotional disabilities, I do not see the difference between the theoretical and or theological concepts. Paul, speaks to the parts of the body of Christ and the very fact that each member of the body has a specific role to play (I Corinthians 12 NIV).  To conclude, McMinn declared, “Those who have an accurate understanding and acceptance of themselves are freed to experience greater emotional or spiritual health (Kindle Loc 932-933). The response to this prompt has been multi-faceted because it is a complexed construct.  Christians have one concept of what this means and so do theorists.

References

Kollar, C. A. (2011). Solution-focused pastoral counseling: An effective short-term approach for getting people back on track. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Zondervan.

McMinn, M. R. (2011). Psychology, theology, and spirituality in Christian Counseling (Revised ed.). Carol Stream, Illinois: Tyndale House Publishers, Inc.

 

Week 4: 1 Multi-tasking in Christian counseling [PowerPoint]. (2015). Lecture, Liberty University Integration of Psychology and Theology. Retrieved from Blackboard.Liberty.edu

A note from Dr. Holland

It is important to have an understanding that developing a healthy sense of self is part of spiritual formation. Ortberg (2010) explains that “spiritual formation is the process by which your inner self and character are shaped” (p. 29).  He goes on to state that “We flourish when our spirits are rooted in and shaped by the Spirit of God – and God wants to do that in a way that uniquely fits us” (Ortberg, 2010, p. 29). So, to be shaped by God we need to read His Word and listen to His Holy Spirit, which is basic to our faith. ~Prof Holland

Reference

Ortberg, J. (2010). The me I want to be: Becoming God’s best version of you. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan.

Discussion Board 5

What are the most important therapeutic uses of Scripture in counseling?

It is important for the counselor to know why they are attempting to use scripture in a therapeutic setting. Is it to benefit for them or the care seeker?  That being said the lecture and the text point us to some therapeutic uses for Scripture in counseling.

The lecture indicated that the most important therapeutic uses of scripture are during the following counseling scenarios: The care seeker is:

experiencing feelings of guilt

demonstrating anxiety

suffering from trauma, stress, or depression.

experiencing interpersonal conflicts with family members or even co-workers.

grieving  (methodology – the empty chair)

having financial difficulties (“Week 5: 1 The Bible in Christian Counseling[PowerPoint Slides],” 2015)

 

According to McMinn (2011), authors of the topic on using scripture for therapeutic purposes have suggested using Bible passages in need of small group counseling to facilitate

codependency concerns

in marital counseling to help couples recover from sexual affairs,

in individual child therapy

to confront irrational beliefs in RET, and

using Scripture memory and meditation as homework in cognitive therapy (Kindle loc.1898).

 

McMinn (2011) cites Eric Johnson’s eight arguments for the use of Scripture in counseling.

First, the Bible plays an experiential role in our lives, providing a rich resource for wisdom and personal maturity.

Second, Scripture plays a foundational role, providing a common starting point for understanding our basic assumptions and beliefs.

Third, it plays a contextual role that allows us to understand human nature, meaning, and purpose in life.

Fourth, Scripture plays an axiological role, giving us standards for what should be.

Fifth, the Bible plays an anthropological role, providing us an awareness of the historical narrative of human sin and divine redemption.

Sixth, it plays a canonical role, providing an unchanging standard of truth.

Seventh, Scripture plays a dialogical role, providing rich resources for discussion and comparison between psychological knowledge and special revelation.

Eighth, the Bible plays a creative role, allowing us to consider and explore concepts and ideas that might not be considered from a purely psychological worldview. These eight roles that Johnson outlines suggest that Christian counselors have only begun to explore the potential of integrating the Bible and psychology.  (Johnson as Cited by McMinn, 2011, Kindle Loc. 1938).

 

Whereas these arguments validate the use of scripture and its rightful place in Christian counseling and the psychology of science they are not presented as therapeutic.

Finally, scriptures can be used as a part of spiritual formation; although we can use scripture in counseling sessions we should be cautious about how it is used (“Week 5: 2 Using the Bible for Spiritual Formation [PowerPoint Slides],” 2015) .

“Finally, brothers and sisters, whatever is true, whatever is noble, whatever is right, whatever is pure, whatever is lovely, whatever is admirable—if anything is excellent or praiseworthy—think about such things (Philippians 4:8 NIV).

 

References

McMinn, M. R. (2011). Psychology, theology, and spirituality in Christian Counseling (Revised ed.). Carol Stream, Illinois: Tyndale House Publishers, Inc.

 

Week 5: The Bible in Christian counseling[PowerPoint slides]. (2015). Lecture 1, Liberty University Integration of Psychology and Theology. Retrieved from Blackboard.Liberty.edu

Week 5: Using the Bible for spiritual formation [PowerPoint slides]. (2015). Lecture 2, Liberty University Integration of Psychology and Theology. Retrieved from Blackboard.Liberty.edu

Discussion Board 6

What are some cautions or possible negative impacts regarding the use of prayer in counseling?

 

First interceding for the needs of a care seeker could lead them to assume that prayer for their need is the counselor’s responsibility; thus negating him or her using this spiritual discipline to transform their lives and bring a resolution to their story (McMinn, 2011). Second, if the theological foundation of the client is not firm the use of contemplative prayer as a form of meditation and worship risks straying into the formation heresy (McMinn, 2011). Third, the use of prayer with a care seeker who is self-conscious about prayer may result in an ethical concern for the area of developing a healthy sense of self (“Week 6: Prayer for Psychological and Spiritual Health: Cautions [PowerPoint Slides],” 2015, Lecture 2). Fourth, within the parameters of developing a healthy sense of need, the inappropriate timing of the inclusion of prayer during counseling can deteriorate into the care seeker hoping for magical results (“Week 6: Prayer for Psychological and Spiritual Health: Cautions [PowerPoint Slides],” 2015, Lecture 2). Continuing with that thought, a counselor may inappropriately use prayer to motivate the care seeker to feel better rather than understanding that prayer connects them with God (“Week 6: Prayer for Psychological and Spiritual Health: Cautions [PowerPoint Slides],” 2015, Lecture 2). Fifth, regarding the importance of a healthy healing relationship, prayer may result in dependency on the counselor and a potential breach of ethical boundaries if the focus strays from God to the counselor (“Week 6: Prayer for Psychological and Spiritual Health: Cautions [PowerPoint Slides],” 2015, Lecture 2).

McMinn (2011) also enumerates some additional risks when using prayer.  (1) Praying for the social effect that Jesus condemns. (2) Praying ritualistically which makes the act of prayer meaninglessness. (3) Praying as a defense mechanism that could lead the care seeker to develop an avoidance of the presenting personal issues and (4) in counseling prayer can placate the client and relieve them of their accountability for their sin and or actions before God (McMinn, 2011). McMinn also iterates the challenges that counselors will face while using prayer as a therapeutic tool in counseling.

Prayer and an unbeliever: This quote from Ortberg (2009) is appropriate here “Right now you cannot run a marathon [Prayer is a marathon]. More to the point, you cannot run a marathon even if you try really, really hard [That is what a non-believer would be doing when forced to pray to a God in whom they do not believe.] (p. 45). Using prayer in a counseling session with a non-believer is like asking them to run a marathon. They must first know that he exists and that he cares otherwise prayer is just a religious ritual with no meaning for them at all (Moitinho, 2015). According to McMinn (1996) always try to avoid situations that could harm the care seeker. McMinn declared that a counselor without training in prayer therapy could cause more harm than good. It was interesting to note that McMinn (2011) stated that prayer is not a technique (p.109)

Prayer is the power tool of Christians, it is the divine resource that creates change from the inside or the outside, but in counseling we must be careful when praying during sessions with the clients (McMinn, 2011).

References

 

McMinn, M. R. (2011). Psychology, theology, and spirituality in Christian Counseling (Revised ed.). Carol Stream, Illinois: Tyndale House Publishers, Inc. Google Books.

Moitinho, E. (2015). Week 6: 3 Prayer and the Christian counselor [Video file]. Lecture, Liberty University Integration of Psychology and Theology. Retrieved from Blackboard.Liberty.edu

Ortberg, J. (2010). The me I want to be: Becoming God’s best version of you. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan. Google Books.

Week 6: Prayer for psychological and spiritual health [PowerPoint slides] (2015). Lecture 2, Liberty University Integration of Psychology and Theology. Retrieved from Blackboard.Liberty.edu

 

How do you decide when to confront sin in counseling and what form of confrontation to use?

 

McMinn (2011) utilized Millard Erickson’s declaration about confronting sin, “sin is any lack of conformity, active or passive, to the moral will of God [an act of willful disobedience]. . . . it is an inner disposition, part of our character that resembles a chronic sickness (p. 148). As counselors, we are cognizant of the research that indicates psychology’s point of view regarding sin.  The theoretical framework of psychology does not consider it a viable concern. Christian counselors are aware of universal sin and personal sin. The Word of God has proved us with ample Scriptural references to support that position. “Behold, I was shapen in iniquity; and in sin did my mother conceive me” (Ps 51:5 King James Version). “for all have sinned and fall short of the glory of God” (Ro 3:23 New International Version).  The Scriptures address sin and its abhorrence to God.

 

However, Christian counselors are concerned with the theological construct surrounding sin and how individuals should recognize that they need to establish and maintain an intimate healing relationship with God.  God deals with each person and their sin. The presentation on confronting sin declared,

But our job is to deal with the people in front of us and let God deal with the sin. And so it’s important for us to help our clients understand that conviction for sin and sorrow for sin and repentance are gifts from God!   For many people, healing cannot begin because they are determined to remain in control of every dimension of their lives, and their main motive for coming to counseling is to be more in control of their lives (“Week 7: 1 Presentation: Counseling Methods Related to Confrontation and Confession[PowerPoint Slides],” 2015, Slide: The work of the Holy Spirit).

Before Christian counselors can begin the confrontation process with a counselee, they must deal with their sin and attitude of confession, contrition, and repentance.

As Christian counselors, we determine if confrontation will violate any ethical and spiritual standards; we are called to “do no harm” (McMinn, 2011, p. 176).  We will ask the three questions presented to us by McMinn:

 

  1. Will the confrontation help to establish a healthy sense of self?
  2. Will the confrontation help to establish a healthy sense of need?
  3. Will the confrontation help to establish a healing relationship?

 

Here is a real-life example of how confrontation can cause apparent lifelong irreparable damage to a Christian. In one of my classes this year, we posted a response to an issue of integrity within Christian leaders.  Student Z declared that she will, “Never darken the doors of a church as a member again” (personal communication, Spring, 2015 [I am choosing not to post the date).  This Christian young lady was brow beaten by a pastor who thought that she had committed an atrocity that she did or did not commit [I will not state either way what the actual situation was] and required contrition or else.  She was writing about the incident seven years after the fact. She is still not attending any church as a permanent member and stated, “When I need mentoring I will find someone I can trust” (Student A).

The damage to this person’s psyche was intense.  Is it irreparable? No! When she listens to God’s voice and finds someone whom she can trust, and that counselor can probably use silence, pondering, or gentle, empathetic questioning she will confess, repent, and allow the Holy Spirit to peel away the layers of damage she experienced.  She is not ready for direct censure. It will take some time in the counseling relationship before she will be ready for a direct approach. Trust must be established first.

 

Finally, our desire is to see people healed but we don’t have to see them healed now.  The Christian counselor’s job is to take that burden to the cross. A Christian Counselors is to pray without ceasing for the counselee (McMinn, 2011).   Ron Hawkins proposed, “God is already working with the counselee and the counselor” when they both enter the counseling relationship (Hawkins, 2015, Phase 2). Joyce believes that when a Christian counselor and a counselee connect they do so as part of God’s plan for their lives. It is a divine appointment.  One orchestrated by our Heavenly Father. “ Being confident of this very thing, that he which hath begun a good work in you will perform it until the day of Jesus Christ” (Phil 1:6 KJV).

In conclusion, as Christian counselors this is our goal,

 

We pray as we breathe, inhaling in the wisdom of God’s presence in this moment, exhaling our frantic need…Sometimes we pray aloud with our clients – and here is where all the science, ethical issues and techniques discussed in this chapter come in handy but most often we do not. Still, we sit in prayer” (McMinn, 2011, p. 109).

Pray on my friends and serve you are called to a high calling.

N.B.:  Sorry about the dissertation, but this topic is near and dear to my heart. I have seen the results of confrontation gone array many times, and it is a sight to behold. It is something that does not please our Heavenly Father.  It has been a learning experience reading all of your wonderful thought out posts.  I hope that our paths cross again as we continue of the adventure that our Heavenly Father has started with us.

Joyce has been beating up on herself about not praying long enough for herself, or spending enough sustained time in personal prayer. When Joyce reread McMinn’s summary about student comments on how they handled prayer she was jarred by the realization that she is consistently praying throughout the day about something she thought, said, or did. Praying about what she will be doing next and whom she will be doing it with.  Praying for her attitude to be right and for Joyce to “be Jesus” to others as she travels through her day.  She forgot that praying without ceasing means just she was doing.  She did a self-evaluation after reading the Ortberg book and found herself wanting in the area of prayer.  She will address that in her soul care paper. She does not think that she could ever pray enough for her.  Her mind must become at one with God and on-going and continual confession, reading the Word of God, more times of solicitude and prayers are some of the spiritual disciplines that will make that happen. Just sitting and listening to the voice of her Heavenly Father and what He has to say to her as He speaks to her through His word is a process that brings joy. She wants that joy to be experienced by all of her counselees.

 

References

 

Hawkins, R. (2015). Week 5: Finding additional information that helps for session one phase one [html]. Lecture presented at Introduction to pastoral counseling, Liberty University. Retrieved from Blackboard: https://learn.liberty.edu

 

McMinn, M. R. (2011). Psychology, theology, and spirituality in Christian Counseling (Revised ed.). Carol Stream, Illinois: Tyndale House Publishers, Inc. Google Books.

Moitinho, E. (2015). Week 6: 3 Prayer and the Christian counselor [Video file]. Lecture, Liberty University Integration of Psychology and Theology. Retrieved from Blackboard.Liberty.edu

Ortberg, J. (2010). The me I want to be: Becoming God’s best version of you. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan. Google Books.

Week 7: Presentation: Counseling methods related to Confrontation and confession[PowerPoint slides]. (2015). Lecture 1, Liberty University Integration of Psychology and Theology. Retrieved from Blackboard.Liberty.edu

 

According to the APA Publication Manual, reference entries are not needed for the Bible and other major classical works

Aside

Contents
FORUM 1. 2
Question #1. 2
The element of the canon that is most important to this writer is element one. 2
Question # 2. 2
Later Acceptance. 3
Forum.. 3
Question 1: The Three Quests. 3
Two Contemporary Challenges. 4
Question 2: The Criteria of Authenticity (COA). 4
Forum 3. 5
Question # 1: Synoptic What are the Synoptic Gospels?. 5
“Synoptic Problem”. 5
Forum # 4. 6
Question # 1: How important is the book of Acts in this [the Chronology of Paul] procedure?. 6
Paul’s Journeys. 7
Question 2: Who sparked the “New Perspective” on Paul, and what is the title of his major work?. 7
What is the label this scholar affixed to first-century Judaism?. 7
What has the “New Perspective” correctly emphasized, and how should it be critiqued?. 7
Critique. 7
Explain Paul’s basic gospel message. 8
Forum #5. 8
Question 1: 8
Occasion and purpose of 1 & 2 Thessalonians. 8
Opponents in Thessalonica. 8
Opponents’ teaching and Paul’s response. 8
Question 2. 9
Interactions. 9
What events led to the writing of 2 Corinthians?. 10
FORUM # 6. 10
Questions 1. 10
Ephesians: Occasion. 10
Ephesians: Purpose. 10
Question # 2; Why did Paul write these letters?. 11
1 and 2 Timothy & Titus: The Occasion. 11
Timothy the Occasion. 11
Titus The Occasion. 11
I, 2 Timothy & Titus Purpose. 11
Timothy the Purpose. 11
Titus the Purpose. 12

 

FORUM 1

Question #1

The word “kanon”, is derived from its Hebrew equivalent “kaneh” and means a “rule or “standard” (KKQ, 3). Today the word canon describes the Christian Scripture as a whole.  The text pointed out the relevance and importance of the timeline and closure of the canon as being, “moot” (KKQ, 3). The fact that the New Testament (NT) canon was closed the date the last book of the was written solidifies this point; however, the NT canon began with the writing of the first books in the late forties and concluded sometime in the latter part of the first century (KKQ, 3). The Christian church did not recognize most of the NT as “Scripture” until the late second century (KKQ, 7).

The four listed of criteria of canonicity were; (1) “was apostolicity, that is, direct or indirect association of a given work with an apostle”; (2) “The second criterion was orthodoxy; that is, whether a given writing conformed to the church’s ‘rule of faith”; (3) “The third criterion was the book’s antiquity”, and (4) “ecclesiastical usage” (KKQ, 8. 9, 10).

 

The supplication for books that “conformed to” the teachings of the apostles was needed for study and congregational worship; this spurred the establishment of an “authoritative list of Scripture” (KKQ, 8).

 

The element of the canon that is most important to this writer is element one.

The early church needed unification of thought and doctrine as members were fulfilling the great commission. They needed to be clear and unified gospel message.  Element one established eyewitness confirmation or personal teaching from The Lord.

The least important element, not that this writer believes that any of the elements are unimportant, would be the last element. This element lends itself to “popular acceptance of a book’ becoming part of a popularity contest rather than being a book inspired by God for spiritual edification. This concern is one that the church is currently experiencing.  The culture of the times indicates that the same need for “mental titillation” existed then. Paul stated, “For while one saith, I am of Paul; and another, I am of Apollos; are ye not carnal (1 Cor3:4-6 NIV)?”

 

Question # 2

The traditional evangelical position affirms God’s inerrant authorship of the canon through the Holy Spirit was settled by the early church fathers and that its closure occurred when the last book of the NT was written (KKQ, 3, 4).  The Christian position also believes in the inerrancy of Scripture.

 

Contrary to traditional evangelical thought, recent scholastic developments indicated that scriptural documents existed then even if they were not included in the original canon because the canon was not closed until the third or fourth century when the church councils made the formal announcement of its closure; this thought negates inerrancy and the authority of Almighty God in the canonicity of Scripture (KKQ, 2, 14)

 

Sundberg proposed that the OT was not closed in the first or second century due to evidentiary proof of the completion date being the fourth century; he also iterated that the early church received the OT canon before the establishment of the acceptance of the statutory criteria (KKQ, 13).

 

Later Acceptance

Hebrews, James, 2 Peter, 2-3 John, Jude, and Revelation were slower to receive universal acceptance (KKQ, 3). The delayed acceptance of the book of James was a surprise.  His discourse on Christian living somewhat mirrored the beatitudes. Relationally it addressed OT teachings on our responsibilities to each other. The late acceptance of the book of Revelation was not surprising.  The reader must be proficient in their understanding of OT prophecies to grasp this book.

 

 

Bibliography

Köstenberger, Andreas J., L. Scott Kellum, and Charles L. Quarles. The Cradle, the Cross, and the Crown. Nashville: B & H Pub. Group, 2009, Google Books.

 

Forum

Question 1: The Three Quests

The first quest was initiated by Reimarus’ and presented a Jesus that mirrored the mindset of the questers who presented him as a man who taught about the brotherhood of man, the fatherhood of God, and a death that was self-giving rather than redemptive (KKQ, 111). It emphasized the “Jesus of History” and ended in the first decade of the twentieth century: source criticism was the tool of inquiry (111).

“The Abandoned Quest” (1906-1953) spearheaded by Schweitzer’s book entitled “The Quest of the Historical Jesus” utilized “form criticism” as it research tool and deemed the historical Jesus an unnecessary appendage, but emphasized a Jesus of Faith (KKQ, 116). This quest had no theological significance (KKQ, 116).

The students of  Bultmann began the second quest 1954 and used noncanonical documents as its research base; it is still ongoing (KKQ, 113). Mack and Crossan, proponents of this quest, presented Jesus as a “cynical, nonapocalyptic, subversive, who was a social reformer” (KKQ, 116). The tools of redaction and tradition criticism were used instead of form criticism as in the “Abandoned Quest, or source criticism utilized in the first quest (KKQ, 116).  The research community has not accepted the theological construct of this quest (KKQ, 116).

The third quest, launched in 1965 by Caird, formulated a construct of Jesus as “an actual historical figure” placed within the cultural context of first century Judaism (KKQ, 114). The researchers directed the process through the use of “Social-scientific and a retooled tradition criticism” (KKQ, 116). The deity of Jesus was not an important part of this research ideology. The concept behind the research was theologically neutral (KKQ, 116).

Two Contemporary Challenges

Jesus the Sage: Witherington proposed that Jesus a sage or teacher of wisdom, “who regarded himself as the embodiment or incarnation of God’s Wisdom” (KKQ, 121).  The evidence offered included a discourse on a deity that “pre-existed man, created, and came to earth to call God’s people to repentance, was accepted by some and rejected by others, and returned to heaven” (KKQ, 122).  KKQ asserted that Witherington’ did not extend the construct enough; it needed more evidentiary proof (122).

Jesus the Marginal Jew: Meirer presented Jesus as a carpenter who abandoned his profession and proclaimed himself a prophetic iterant minister who did not adhere to the Jewish customs Judaic practices of his religious sect (KKQ, 122). Meirer proffered his execution demonstrated that he was considered marginal by both the political and religious leaders of his time (122).

Accurate historical information is used for research and aids in the reliability of the Gospel message.  However, researchers use historical data based on their own assumptions, but believers walk by faith.

 

Question 2: The Criteria of Authenticity (COA).

  1. Multiple Attestation or Forms: materials are authentic and found in more than one source.
  2. Palestinian Environment or Language: literal translation of Semitic Idiom into Greek.
  3. Dissimilarity: Sayings or deeds attributed to Jesus are dissimilar to the expected Judaic practice of His day.
  4. Coherence: early and authentic if judged consistent with material based on other criteria (KKQ, 152).

These criteria aid in the establishment of the historical reliability of the Gospels’ presentation of Jesus activities such as exorcisms, miracles, and culminating in his resurrection (KKQ, 153). The burden of proof was placed on the Gospel material (152).From a philosophical construct, utilizing the tools of COA) to defend the historical Gospel lends authenticity to the argument.  Critics accept evidence provided by researchers and do not require “belief” on their part.

 

 

Forum 3

Question # 1: Synoptic What are the Synoptic Gospels?

 

The Synoptic Gospels are the books of “Matthew, Mark, and Luke” (KKQ, 158; BB, 45).  Historical researchers considered them “synoptic” because there are so many “similarities” between the writers’ presentations of the “life, teachings, death and resurrection of Jesus Christ” that researchers concluded that the Gospels must have a correlation between the writers (158).

 

 “Synoptic Problem” 

 

The “Synoptic Problem” refers to the “unique literary phenomenon” of similarities and differences between the gospels of Matthew, Mark, and Luke (BB. 3; KKQ, 158).

 

 Do the differences found in the Synoptic Gospels present a threat to their validity for understanding the ministry and teachings of Jesus Christ or the historical events concerning his life and resurrection?

 

The differences do not constitute a threat to the validity or reliability of the Synoptic Gospels presentation of the history, ministry, and teachings of Jesus Christ. According to KKQ “early non-Christian sources” lend credibility to the historical existence of Jesus Christ, his teachings, and ministry (110). Regardless of the theory utilized to determine which Gospel was written first, second, or third, neither hypothesis negates the fact that Jesus came as the Savior of humanity, completed His ordained purpose, and is the resurrected Savior (BB, 10-20, 140-143). Employing the “Criteria of Authenticity” to facilitate the validity/reliability of the Synoptic Gospels proffered historical evidence of the existence of Jesus Christ (KKQ, 153). 

Question #2 

Define the following terms and explain from whom they originated:

The Augustinian View: KKQ declared that this view gave priority to Matthew as the writer of the first Gospel; it also proposed that Mark utilized Matthew as a source for his Gospel, and Luke acquired source materials from both Matthew and Mark to write the Gospel of Luke (164). The term originated from “Augustin” and so did “literary dependence” (KKQ, 164; BB, 16-17).

 

Literary Independence: The presented explanation for “literary independence” stated that authors of the Gospels wrote independently of each other under the inspiration of the Holy Spirit which is consistent with the inerrancy of the Gospel (BB, 19; KKQ, 164).  Literary independence also demonstrates the Gospel writers’ fidelity as they reported what they saw concerning the life, ministry, death, and resurrection of The Lord (KKQ, 164).  KKQ does not consider “literary independence” to account for the similarities in the literary content of the Gospel writers (164). Neither BB nor KKQ identified a theorist for this term.

 

Markan Priority: This priority determined that Mark wrote his Gospel first, and Matthew and Luke utilized it to write their Gospel. Some points of reference to support this hypothesis are: 

  1. The fact that Mark is a “shorter Gospel”;
  2. Mark offered Aramaic phraseology that is absent in the others writer’s Gospels 
  3. Mark provided some passages that were more challenging to the reader; such as  “Mark 10:17: 19:17” and the other Gospel writers were led to clarify them.
  4. Matthew and Luke rarely argued against Mark in phraseology (KKQ, 167).

The Two-Gospel Hypothesis (or “Theory”) “or Oxford Hypothesis”: J. J. Griesbach is the author of this theory. He advanced a theoretical construct of Matthew is the first Gospel, but Luke was second and did not use Mark as his source material (KKQ, 164-165). Moreover, he further contended that Mark wrote the last Gospel and used Matthew and Luke as artifacts from which Mark penned The Gospel of Mark; this is the reverse of the Augustine theory (BB, 46-48; KKQ, 164-165).  Contemporary researchers who support Griesbach’s theory iterated that Luke developed his Gospel utilizing Matthew (KKQ, 165). This theory should not be confused with the “Two-Document Hypothesis” and demonstrates literary interdependence (KKQ, 164).

 

Forum # 4
Question # 1: How important is the book of Acts in this [the Chronology of Paul] procedure?

The book of Acts provided additional material for dating Paul’s persecution of the church, his conversion, the beginning of his missionary journeys, the beginning of his mission to the Gentiles, his visit to Jerusalem. Offer a brief overview of Paul’s life and his missionary activities (KKQ, 397-398).  [All references in this section are from KKQ.]

As previously stated, Paul was a Roman Jew and a Pharisee, and well versed in the law due to his training under Gamaliel (Acts 22:3 NIV). His relentless persecution of the Church did not convey his teacher’s position on the followers of Christ, but it denoted his zeal for the law (Acts 5:34-39; Phil 3:5-6). His conversion occurred around during 34-36 AD (390). Paul’s historic visit to Jerusalem and acceptance by Peter and James happened three years after his conversion; the missionary journey to Syria and Cilicia followed this historic visit to Peter and James (391).

Paul’s missionary travels spanned between 34-58 AD (392). First Paul visited Arabia and experienced his first push-back to The Gospel; He returned to Damascus but avoided imprisonment due to the accusations of the Jews (392). Paul went to Jerusalem and visited with Peter and James – it is probable that he learned about Jesus’ life, ministry, death and resurrection from them (392). The next journey took him to Syria and Cilicia where he witnessed for several years (392).

Paul’s Journeys

  1. First Missionary Journey (47-48) to Pisidia, Antioch, Iconium, Pystra, and Derbe located in Galatia from where he probably penned the letter to the Galatians (392).
  2. Second Missionary Journey (49-51): Paul traveled through Anatolia, Macedonia, and Achaia; and created churches in Philippi, Thessalonica, and Berea after his disagreement with Barnabas due to Mark’s abandonment of the team during their first missionary journey (393; Acts 15:38). KKQ documented that several of the Pauline letters addressed to the Gentile churches were written during this period (393).
  3. Third Missionary Journey (51-54): Paul focused on Ephesus during these years and the books of Romans and 1 and 2 Corinthians (393-394).
  4. Paul’s final years included relief work for Jerusalem; his trial before Felix, his arrival in Rome where he wrote the books of Ephesians, Philippians, Colossians, I and II Timothy, Titus and Philemon (395). Church tradition dictated that Nero beheaded Paul (396).
Question 2: Who sparked the “New Perspective” on Paul, and what is the title of his major work?

KKQ identified Sanders as the scholar who sparked the “New Perspective” when he wrote, “Paul and Palestinian Judaism” (KKQ, 379).

What is the label this scholar affixed to first-century Judaism?

“Covenantal nomism” is the label that E. P. Sanders attached to first-century Judaism (379).

What has the “New Perspective” correctly emphasized, and how should it be critiqued?

The “New Perspective” correctly emphasized early Christianity’s “contextual relationship” with Judaism; warned against “presumptive/misleading caricatures” of Judaic beliefs; some first-century Jews may have embraced the “works-righteousness for salvation (386). It is best not to generalize and group “everyone” in just “one pot.”

Critique

Sanders’ attempt to find a single “pattern of religion” in first-century Judaism sometimes led him to downplay the vast differences between various sects and theological perspectives within Judaism” (KKQ, 383). Critique of this perspective would require exegesis of Paul’s letters that provide evidentiary proof or refutation of the above assertions.

Explain Paul’s basic gospel message

Paul’s Gospel rendered humanity guilty of rejecting God and his authority’ the impact of universal sin; the only avoidance of God’s just judgment was acceptance of Jesus Christ through faith, not works (396). The Gospel of Paul focused on the incarnate Jesus who fulfilled the requirements of the Judaic law; adherence to the law was no longer necessary due to the indwelling of the Holy Spirit (396). The deity of Christ and the unity of the Godhead was also evident in Paul’s Gospel; one body, one spirit, one Lord and one faith (397).

Forum #5
Question 1:

 

Discuss the occasion and purpose for the writing of 1 & 2 Thessalonians. Who were the opponents of Paul in Thessalonica? What was the nature of the opponents’ teaching and how did Paul respond to it? Should church leaders today apply Paul’s responses in their respective ministries? If so, how?

Occasion and purpose of 1 & 2 Thessalonians

 

KKQ cited several reasons for the first letter to Thessalonians: (1)Encouragement to endure the persecution”; (2) a defense of Paul’s rationale for his mission to the area; (3) an expression of the urgency of spiritual purity and a life free from sexual immorality ; (4) to provide the Thessalonian Church with a picture of what a “Christian work ethic” looked like finally (5) an admonishment to the believers of their financial responsibility to the leaders of the faith (445).

The second letter qualified the construct of “The Day of the Lord” and it significance for believers; exhortations regarding the necessity of prayer, and a revalidation of the concern regarding idleness (447-448; 2 Thes 3.11).

Opponents in Thessalonica

 

Acts 17:5 asserted that the opponents were Jews; however they incited the “bad characters” to escalate the dissension when they, “formed a mob and started a riot in the city.” (KKQ, 443).

Opponents’ teaching and Paul’s respond

 

The opponents asserted that Paul’s mission was self-motivated; the opponents alluded that Paul abandoned the fledgling church after he caused a riot even though the persecuted church needed the apostle (471). The detractors criticized him for leaving the church to endure the persecution that started because of the riot initiated by Paul started (KKQ, 471).

Paul apparently learned from Timothy that some opponents of the church were challenging the motives of the ministry.  Paul responded by expressing his love for the congregation; expression of love alleviated the congregants’ fears (KKQ, 451). Paul thanked God for the Thessalonian church; the apostle referenced their love of God and obedience by destroying their idols; their election as God’s people was peppered by miracles, thus solidifying the work of the Holy Spirit through the apostle in Thessalonica.

Question 2

Describe the various interactions of Paul with the church in Corinth (include both visits and letters). What events caused his writing of 1 Corinthians? What events led to the writing of 2 Corinthians? What are the three major theories concerning Paul’s opponents in 2 Corinthians? Using Paul as an example, should Christian leaders today respond to their opponents in this way? Why or why not? What principles do you think we can learn from Paul in dealing with church conflict?

KKQ documented the sequence of Paul’s journeys and letters as follows:

  1. First visit: Paul planted the church in Corinth
  2. Paul wrote the “previous letter.”
  3. Paul wrote 1 Corinthians from Ephesus in
  4. Second visit: the “painful visit.”
  5. Paul wrote the “severe letter.”
  6. Paul wrote 2 Corinthians from Macedonia
  7. Third visit (Acts 20:2) (470).
Interactions

Paul established the Corinthian church during his “second missionary journey” (471).  According to KKQ, scholars purport that Paul wrote other letters to the leaders in Corinth (464).  KKQ indicated that the letters were personal letters of instruction, direction and or exhortation to the spiritual leaders in Corinth (464). Scholars attest that I Cor is a compilation of ten letters written by the apostle due to the “fragmentary” nature of the prose; however, Paul was addressing specific points of contention and fluidity of prose would not be evident due to the nature of the discourse (466). While in Ephesus, Paul received “oral” reports of immorality, dysfunctionality, division, and factions in the church; Paul penned 1 Cor to address these concerns (474).  2 Cor praised the church for solving the concerns raised in the first letter (464). It postulated a defense of the “apostolic” nature of Paul’s authority over the church and detailed the theology of the “new covenant,” encouraged “sacrificial giving” to the relief effort, and challenged the claims of false apostles” (464).

What events led to the writing of 2 Corinthians?

The book of 2 Corinthians purposed to; (1) encourage the Corinthians for the manner with which they handled his directives in the first letter and (2) to defend his apostleship (482). Furthermore, it was written to (3)  ensure the Corinthians that he was not inconsistent in keeping his word and would indeed be visiting them; (3) to restore a member who had experienced church discipline, and finally to encourage the Corinthians to examine the authenticity of their faith (482).

“Unless otherwise stated all references are from KKQ and the New International Version of the Bible.”

Unless otherwise noted, all biblical passages referenced are in the New International Version (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 2015)

FORUM # 6
Questions 1

Discuss the occasion and purpose for the writing of two of Paul’s letters from Prison (Ephesians, Philippians, Colossians, and Philemon). Who were the opponents (if any) of Paul in these areas? What was the nature of the opponents’ doctrine and how did Paul respond to it?

 Ephesians: Occasion

KKQ expressed that the occasion for the letter to the Ephesians is not clearly identifiable (580). However, C. E. Arnold specified that the pagan practices of the Asia Minor region would “necessitate” guidance for living a Christ-centered lifestyle (C. E. Arnold as cited by  KKQ, 588).

Ephesians: Purpose

Scholars agree that the purpose of Ephesians defined “cosmic reconciliation” in Christ while addressing the need for a unified church that demonstrated a clearly Christian ethic while recognizing the need for an awareness of spiritual warfare in a society plagued with paganism (589). The body of the letter proffers an explanation of the unity of the Godhead mirrored in the congregation; and Paul’s doxology once again reiterates the theme of unity (590-591; Eph 3:18 and 21). This letter defined the nature of the church, the place of the Trinity or “trinitarian ecclesiology”, as well as the indwelling of the Holy Spirit and the unity afforded through the indwelling of the Holy Spirit (597).

 Question # 2; Why did Paul write these letters?

Paul wrote these letters for the expressed purpose of providing his apostolic delegates (Timothy and Titus)  with the instruction needed to navigate the stormy waters of threats from without and within, as well as preparing both delegates for the roles of  “apostolic delegates” (KKQ, 637). The theme of the letters is securing the church for the “postapostolic” period of church history (Ibid). KKQ postulated the historical importance of pastoral letters; the letters presented the framework for church governance and administration and the criteria for positional leadership within the church. It is apparent that Paul was aware that the pastoral letters, though not written to Timothy or Titus as pastors, would be his last communique of this type to his delegates (638).

For the sake of space, the occasion and purpose for the pastorals will be combined

1 and 2 Timothy & Titus: The Occasion
Timothy the Occasion

 

Paul admonished Timothy to address the false teachers and specifically identified Hymenaeus and Alexander (1:3-11; 2:1-316). The same Judaic concerns with the eating of meats were evident in 1 Tim 4. Myths and fables were also a concern addressed 1 Tim 4 as it pertains to the latter days. The threat of the false teachers was not a basic one Paul addressed it more than once as he concluded letter. 3:14-16 spoke of Timothy’s demeanor and role as a leader: Paul’s parting words to him were to avoid controversy and espouse to the simplicity of the gospel, “God was manifest in the flesh, justified in the Spirit, seen of angels, preached unto the Gentiles, believed on in the world, received up into glory” (3:16). KKQ referenced that Paul’s intention was to refute the heresies (KKQ, 664)

Titus The Occasion

 

Titus’ biggest challenge was from Judaic influences; specifically about circumcision (Titus 1:10).  Titus also had a need to appoint qualified elders, but he was opposed but the Cretans (KKQ, 658).
I, 2 Timothy & Titus Purpose
Timothy the Purpose

 

1 Timothy was directed to handle the congregational concerns of prayer for all men, leadership within the church, the role of women in the church, how one should conduct themselves, and the qualifications of male overseers, deacons, and to prevent certain people from preaching doctrine (647). 2 Timothy’s purpose was to preach the Christian gospel (KKQ 647-648).

Titus the Purpose

 

Titus: Titus’ dictum was “to appoint elders in every town”; Titus received various instructions on how to correct the enemies of the gospel while keeping himself stayed above the fray (KKQ, 647). Titus delivered the apostle’s directive of Christian deportment “adorn the teaching of God our Savior in everything” (2:10);  to devote themselves to “every good work” and adherence to the Christian doctrines  (3:1: KKQ, 647).

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